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OLD LIVERPOOL ROAD / LIVERPOOL, NEW YORK 13088 / 315 / 457-0440 

For Immediate Release; 
Sent November 26, 1968 

An African dance performed by Syracuse University graduate student 
Jeff Zwana is the opening segment of the premier program on WCNY-TV*s locally- 
produced series, "Black on Black: The Afro-American Television Magazine," which 
will be broadcast bi-monthly beginning December 6 (Friday) at 7*30 p.m. 

Made possible through the cooperation of the Urban League of Onondaga 
County, Inc,, the 30-minute programs are produced and hosted by Charles Anderson, 
Education Director of the Urban League, which granted Anderson release time to 
do the series, Anderson, who has received undergraduate and graduate degrees in 
television and speech, has had extensive experience in producing and directing 
educational television shows in the United States and Africa, 

Other segments on the December 6 program will include interviews with 
Rev. Ernest Boston of Boston Automotive Consultants, Inc. and Thornton Jones, 
owner-president of Ebony Market; a discussion by two Corcoran High School students, 
Marsha Witcher and Jeanette Sanders, about the "Syracuse Negroes of Today" and 
slavery in New York State; and a commentary on "The Teaching of Black History" by 
Ron Walkers, Professor of Political Science at the Maxwell School of Citizenship 
at Syracuse University, 

"The objective of the ’Black on Black’ series will be to provide a platform 
for black people to speak directly to other blacks and indirectly to the community 
at large...about prime concerns of black citizens; and to provide a cultural showcase 
for black artists, craftsmen, journalists, and entertainers," said Anderson. "In 
addition, representatives from community organizations representing a broad cross- 
section of black opinion will be constantly sought for guest commentary and 
appearances," he added. 


"BLACK ON BLACK"—page 2 
WCNX-TV, Channel 2h 

Among the many community organizations which have pledged their continuing 
support of the "Black on Black" series are the Human Rights Commission, Organization 
of Organizations, P.E.A.C.E., N.A.A.C.P., Dunbar Center, Urban League, Poor People’s 
Campaign, the Society of Afro-American Students, Community Help Association, Home 
Town News, Ltd., Alliance for Progress, Debutantes, Syracuse Public School District, 
Roosevelt Junior Hi$i School, Syracuse Neighborhood Health Center, Neighborhood 
Youth Corporation, Central City Businessmen’s Association, Hopps Jfemorial Church 
and A.L.E.R.T. 

Director for the series is Art Irons. Executive producer is Robert W. 






OLD LIVERPOOL ROAD / LIVERPOOL, NEW YORK 13088 / 315 / 457-0440 

For Immediate Release; 

Sent Novenber 13, 1968 

Central New York’s public television station, VJCNY-TV, Channel 2U, 
today announced the final production plans, for a locally-conceived and— 
produced series entitled "Black on Rlaeks /fro-American Television Magazine, 
which will have its preview broadcasts on WCNY, Phiday, November l£ at 3*30p.m. 
and 7? 30 p.m. 

Made possible through the cooperation of the Urban League of Onondaga 
County, Inc., "Black on Black," which will premiere December 6 (Pl*iday) at 
7:30 p.m., is being produced and hosted by Charles Anderson, Education Director 
of the Urban L ague, which granted Anderson release time to work on the series. 
Anderson, who has received undergraduate and graduate degrees in television 
and speech, has had extensive expeeience in producing and directing educational 
television shows in the United States and Africa. 

"The objective of the ’Black on Black* series will be to provide a plat¬ 
form for black people to speak directly to other blacks and indirectly to the 
community at large...about prime concerns of black citizens; and to provide a 
cultural showcase for black artists, craftsmen, jounnalists and entertainers," 
said Anderson. "In addition, representatives from community organisations rep¬ 
resenting a broad cross-section of black opinion will be constantly sought 
for guest commentary and appearances," he added. 

Arthur Paul, Assistant General Manager for Program Operations at Channel 
2h, said "a series by and for black community has been in the p ianning stages 
for two years but production plans were especially accelerated when the report 
of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders was released early this 
year." In that report, said Paul, all facets of the news media -MORE- 


were indicated ’’for not having shown understanding and appreciation of—and 
thus having not communicated—a sense of Negro culture, thought, and history. 
The ’’Black on Black” programs will seek to challenge this” he added, ”by 
stressing the positive and constructive by searching for a reasonable solution 
to existing conditions through the improvement of communications between the 
black minority and white majority and the substitution of fact and informed 
opinion for fiction and propaganda.” 

Mong the many community organizations which have pledged their continu¬ 
ing support of the ”Black on Black” series are the Human Rights Commission, 
Organization of Organizations, P.E.A.C.E., N.A.A.C.P., Dunbar Center, Urban 
League, Poor Peoples’ Campaign, the Society of Afro-American Students, Comm¬ 
unity Help Association, The Liberated Voice, Home Town News, Ltd,, Alliance 
for Progress, Debutantes, Syracuse Public School District, Roosevelt Junior 
High School, Syracuse Neighborhook Health Center, Neighborhood Youth Corpora¬ 
tion, Central City Businessmen's Association, Hopps Memorial Church and 
A .L .E *R. T . 

The preview program of the "Black on Black” series will include a film on 

the Dunbar Center Summer Camp at Bradley Brook, with an interview of 
Reginald Gary, Executive Director of the Center. In addition, there will 
be a look at the community calendar; a brief film segment on the opening 
of the newly-established Texaco station—a cooperative business venture by 
the black community—which was a tended by Mayor Walsh, County Executive 
John Mulroy, and Congressman James M. Hanley; interviews whith Thornton Jones 
owner of the Ebony Market, and Dave McDonald, Director of Employment for the 
Urban League, on the role of the black businessman; and a short film featur¬ 
ing a poetry reading by Elinor Russell. 

The ’’Black on Black” series will be produced on a continuing basis and 
will be broadcast, beginning December 6, on alternate Fridays at 7?30 p.m. 

Director for the series is Art Irons, and executive producer is Robert 

W. Thomas. 


Modesto Junior College 



November 13, 1968 

National Association of Educational Broadcasters 
1346 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. 

Washington, D. C. 20036 


It is our understanding that the National Association of 
Educational Broadcasters sponsored a conference on the applica¬ 
tion of communication technology to the problems of rural depri¬ 
vation on May 6 through May 9, 1968, in St. Louis, Missouri. We 
would appreciate receiving two copies of the proceedings of the 
meetings focusing on education for the disadvantaged, methods for 
dealing with the geographical affect on equal opportunity in edu¬ 
cation, and the more appropriate use of educational technology in 
dealing with society’s problems, if these are available. 

Thank you for your assistance in this matter. 

Very truly yours 

Dr. Patricia C. Hertert 
Instructional Resources Consultant 





OLD LIVERPOOL ROAD / LIVERPOOL, NEW YORK 13088 / 315 / 457-0440 

BLACK ON BLACK TV SERIES For Immediate Release 

ANNOUNCED BY WCNY-TV, SYRACUSE Sent November 12, 1968 

WCNY-TV, Syracuse, the public television station serving 
Central New York, announced plans to broadcast a new locally-produced 
bi-monthly series designed to serve as a vehicle for expression by and 
for the black community in Syracuse. 

Black on Black ; Afro-American Television Magazine , was intro¬ 
duced to the community at a special screening for the ETV Council*s 
Board of Trustees Community Programming Committee and an invited aud¬ 
ience of community leaders. The previous program was also previewed 
over Channel 24 to the community at large this week. (Week of Nov. 11, 

The premiere program in the series which has been almost two 
years in the planning and development stages, will be broadcast 
December 6 at 7:30 P.M. and will be seen every other Friday at 7:30 P.M. 
and repeated for in-school audiences on Tuesday at 12 noon and Thurs¬ 
days at 12:30 P.M. 

Arthur Paul, Assistant General Manager for Program Operations, 
said the objectives of the series are: to reach all Negroes in the 
Syracuse metropolitan area, but especially the youth and those in the 
low income brackets; to rely upon the Negro community, local and 
national, as a talent resource; to provide a platform for Negroes to 
speak directly to other Negroes and indirectly to the community at 
large, via television, about prime concerns of the Negro citizens, 
with maximum freedom from restraint, other than those of good taste 
and responsible comment. 

Black on Black , by providing information and methods for self- 
improvement and assertion, is also designed to confront and improve the 
realities of life within the Negro neighborhoods as well as examining 
relationships between the Negro and White community. The series will 
provide an opportunity for lower-income Negroes to relate constructively 
to Negro leaders, and will strive to give the youth especially, strong, 
positive figures to admire and emulate 


WCNY-TV, Black on Black Page 2. 

Black on Black will also provide a cultural showcase for: 

Negro artists, craftsmen, journalists, and others. 

Charles Anderson, who is education director for the Syracuse 
Urban League, has been given release time to produce the Black on 

Black series, as well as acting as host. A radio-television graduate, 
Anderson has considerable experience in producing television informatior 
programs in the U.S. and Africa. "To add diversity to the series, 
black presidents and/or directors of community organizations represen¬ 
ting a broad cross section of black opinion, will be constantly sought 
out for guest editorials and appearances," Anderson said. "Our series 
will seek to present to the over-all public the problems, aspirations, 
objectives and accomplishments which predominate in the black commun¬ 
ity," he said. 

To accomplish its multiple purpose, Black on Black is designed 
as a magazine format series with some continuing elements. It will 
feature a regular host with local guests, artists, and officials as 
well as occasional national and international visitors. As often as 
possible, interviews and features are to be filmed on location in the 
Negro neighborhoods using the station*s mobile unit or film crews. 
Occasionally, a locally produced documentary may be shown to dramatize 
or illustrate subjects or issues under consideration. 

Negro leaders, journalists, and spokesmen representing a broad 
cross section of black opinion will be constantly sought for guest 
commentaries appropriate to local events, stimulating community dis¬ 
cussion and deliberation. 

Whatever the focus, Black on Black programs will tend to stress 
the positive, the constructive; seeking the reasonable solution to 
existing conditions; improved communications between the black minority 
and white majority; substitution of fact and informed opinion for 
fiction and propaganda; to expose rumors, misinformation and misunder¬ 
standings; the creation and development of leadership qualities and 
"legitimization" of the "natural" neighborhood leader; and providing 
for the purposeful involvement of black people behind and in front of 
Black on Black cameras. 

Thomas Petry, President and General Manager of WCNY-TV, pointed 
out that while many other ETV stations around the country had already 
undertaken similar programming, he wanted to acknowledge that the 
Channel 24 staff working together with almost every neighborhood and 
institutional group dealing with human relations and urban problems, 
had been preparing the new series for almost two years. 


WCNY-TV, Black on Black Page 3. 

While emphasizing the need for this special series, Petry 
added that Channel 24 would continue to build on its continuing 
integrated” attention to urban problems and human relations. "WCNY-TV 
is not suddenly ’going black.* We have always had black hosts, panel¬ 
ists, audience participants, and guest personalities on local produc¬ 
tions such as Mohammed Ali, author John H. Williams, Jet magazine 
editor Robert Johnson, Justice Department*s Ben Holman, State Human 
Rights Commissioner Robert J. Mangum, and many others.” When you add 
in NET'S Black Journal and the many other EEN and NET documentaries 
and information programs that Channel 24 has presented together with 
its local productions, the station has already established a record of 
continuing prime time exposure to the black dilemma facing our society 
and to black talent and opinion. ’’Nevertheless, ” Petry added, "we hope 
this series is in fact, going to be something more personal, less 
didactic, and more productive for the local black community. It will 
be their program and not our idea of what may be good for them.” 

Paul introduced the closed circuit screening by citing the 
Koerner Commission’s recommendations to the media and by referring to 
Ben Holman’s (Assistant Director for Media Relations, Community Rela¬ 
tions Service, U.S. Department of Justice) specific recommendations: 
"the problems of the ghetto are past the point of occasional special 
programming, they demand probing week in and week out by all broad¬ 
casters as ’routine* programming." 

Representatives from area public and private schools requested 
that the series also be scheduled for in-school use by teachers and 
high school pupils. "This is exactly the kind of program that our 
teachers are begging for, the kind of information and concept that the 
white teacher just can’t provide," said Dr. Franklyn S. Barry, Super¬ 
intendent of Syracuse City Schools. 

Petry explained that the special group sessions would be 
organized in neighborhood schools, centers, churches, or libraries. 
"We’ve literally got to build an audience from nothing; special promo¬ 
tional techniques will be needed; every black organization and group 
will be asked to help spread the word." 

Some of the dominant themes discussed for the series are 
black dignity; constructive black economic and political power; black 
education, business and jobs, culture and aspirations. 

Foundation and other underwriting for the series has not been 
secured and the series is being produced through the use of limited 
general production funds with the production assistance of the 
Syracuse Urban League. 


WCNY-TV, Black on Black Page 4. 

The preview program included film segments about the Dunbar 
Center's Afro-American Heritage Summer Camp program at Bradley Brook, 
and the recently opened cooperative Texaco service station, owned and 
operated by members of the black community. The black businessman, 
his role in the community and his problems was examined through inter¬ 
views with Thornton Jones f owner of Ebony Market and Dave McDonald, 
Director of Employment for the Urban League. Reginald Gary, Executive 
Director of the Dunbar Center appeared before the Black on Black 
cameras, as did Elinor Russell, a local student actress, who presented 
a poetry-dance reading. A community calendar and preview of things to 
come rounded out the preview program. 



Twelfth Report on Programming for the Disadvantaged 

GrQni /iasland 

"I am I, and my circumstances." 

Ortega y Gassett 

CANCION DE LA RAZA (Song of People) - KCET, Los Angeles 

is giust that: a lament for all the fights, bitterness, and 
hate of the barrio in East Los Angeles, and barrios all over the 
world. But it is also a hymn of life and hope for better things 
to come. The series is about as hard hitting as most soap operas 
are insipid. Portia never had to face this kind of life. 

—*. xa > ArTAAUZn 

This sort of drama does not occur over 

overnight. It takes months 
of hard work, particularly in rounding up the actors and writers. 

To live up to the high standards of realism demanded by the format, 
KCET established an emergency Actors Workshop, hired three pro- 


fessional actors well acquainted with both acting and barrio^to 
guide the group, and plugged into the Mexican-American grapevine. 
Quickly word got out and the workshop membership grew to 65. From 
this momentum KCET has acquired the services of many fine actors 
and the community has a new theatrical company. 

Another crash project was the selection of writers for the 
series. As with the actors, KCET circulated word through the 
community, as well as the Writers Guild. Twenty-five writers were 
interviewed, nine were asked to submit scripts, and four were 
selected; all on the basis that they could portray the reality of 
the barrio on television. 


The first week T s (Monday through Friday) episodes deal with a 

high school walkout, or in the patois, blowout. The older 

brother of the Ramos family is beaten by the police. At home 

the question whether rely on the ethnic folk healer or call 

VsAed icari 

an M. D. brings back ugly memories of past sSSk treatment. Later 
the mother tries to buy a present for the injured son, but discovers 
that with interest charged by ghetto merchants it would cost twice 
as much as normal retail. The boy knows now that the system is 
leaded against him and walks out, leaving family, and hope behind. 
Like all ? soaps"this one might well go on and on. Ru^-unl iko its 

cron de la RazaV T1 

rT-es \ 

pnmmprn ial hr p "Can Cl 

is an honest portrayal of a tough life* not a manipulation of middle- 
class fantasy. 

it n 

True^jro the soap opera format, there are commercials. On 
"Cancion de la Raza" these take the form of community service 
announcements of particular interests to the residents of East 
Los Angeles. 

However, these announcements are not enough. People viewing 
the program need to know that they are not alone in their hardships 
and confusion. They need to know that there are answers to the 
perplexities of urban life. Every Monday night, preceding the 
daily episode of Cancion, a new program called LINEA AbIiR^TA (OPEN 
LINE) allows a group of "experts" from the community to answer 
questions gathered from viewers during the preceding week. In this 
manner, KCET hopes to solve problems rather than create more 
rhetoric. The much touted cliche, "bridges of understanding" shoi/|d 
refer to acts not works, if it is to have any valid meaning. 

CONTACT: Ed Moreno, KCET^ e)#$ / 



series prirtihinnrlwdMp nrnrl for Indians and 

hosted by Bruee Baird and Emily Peak 

both Chippewa Indians^ 

Tnrin—ifir'Hjpiirr is reaching 7 

m is reaching 7,000 to 8,000 Indians in the 

Twin Cities area with news and information about the reservation. 

only link dwtfia i rant agencies and about 2,000 homeless Indians 

who move frequently within the area, but manage to take their 
television sets with them. 

Recent reports indicate that the program, which is aired at 
dinner time every Friday night, is developing to be such a habit, 
that many of the Indians in the area do not plan any events until 
after it is over. 

The series is presently financed by the Indians themselves 
chiefly through the Twin City Chippewa Tribal Council^ Xtogu g ffll - 

^promoted a sale of iLapel buttons which read ’’Support -fhe Runner”. 
Business and industry have also helped. KTCA hopes that with proper 
funding, the Runner may continue and be used on MET (Midwest Edu¬ 
cational Television) where it could reach an audience of 25,000 

Co nfa cl ■ J & Se f h A tft- I'm t>77~ 

KT^A- 577 &ol M;**, 

YA tfS T±EM PO (ITS APOUI TIME), the name of a recent series of 
five programs directed at the Spanish in Greater New York, 
is significant in several ways. 

First, it’s about time that somebody, somewhere, worked out 
the formula CAP(OEO) X TV = SA: Which interpreted means, 
Community Action Program, with the help of the Office of 
Economic Opportunity, multiplied by television, will result in 
social action. In this case it is the Community Action Training 
Institute in Trention, N.J. that decided to reach into 
barrios rr F-Nrw Yo rk with such themes as consumer education, 
housing problems, education problems, employment opportunities, 
and the formation of leadership. Once the basic scripts had 
been put together^ g feiKAhuifiriirTY mont. TV stations in the 

New York area were asked for a bid on the production. Low bidder 
was WNJU-TV, channel 47, a Span . i- » h- sration iHKKfcx in Newark. 

Secondly, its about time that somebody utilized the tele-club 
format in this country. UNESCO has documented this method of 
using TV as a catalytic agent in group dynamics in France, India, 
xjot Japan, and Ireland. The Community Action Training Institute 
has now validated its successful application in our urban slums. 
Specifically, 250 group leaders gathered more than 2,300 people 
together in their own homes to watch and discuss the telecasts. 
Five booklets supplementing the programs were distributed. 
Everything was done in Spanish. 

The project involved neighborhood people from beginning to end; they 
were the actors, they spread the word through the barrios, they 
provided the script ideas, and they led the groups. While this 
project totaled only five half-hours (it ran last August and 
September) the results have been encouraging. So far ten home 
trainees have started block clubs or tenant clubs, fkxx Others 
have requested help from their group leaders and from local CAP'S.; 
some asked if tfciey could be group leaders when the project is 
repeated; many wrote about their own specific problems in housing, 
employment, etc. ; all requested more training that might be 
given in their neighborhoods. 

The Institute is aware of the necessity to follow-up what the 
project b^gan. Training and technical assistance is being 
provided to the new leaders. What role television w T ill play in 
this follow-up is uncertain, although &kxxKKix WNJU-TV, which 
gave free air time, (7:30-8:00 P.M.) the 


Community action training beamed \$o the homes of the poor over 
local television channels is now a proven and exciting reality. 
The people have accepted it and demonstrated their commitment. 

The future development of such projects now depends heavily on 
television and CAP groups making a commitment. Ya es tiempo l 



It was the blow-out. Mama, David and 
a lot of kids tried to walk out of 
the school. 


^Por que, porque? 


Para protestar. Mama, for better 
schools, for better teachers, better 
books — better everything! And we 
were all walking out and someone 
called the police. 








Amalia, que paso? Why did the police 
hit him? Por que? 

5 - 


For nothing. Mama, we were outside the 
school and the policemen were trying 
to move us down the street ... we 
were trying to get out of their way... 
but we couldn’t and they got David. 
He tried to get away. Mama, but he 
couldn’t... they were hitting him... 
Ay, Mama. 



My son, my son, what happened to my 
son? Ay Dios mio, que le paso a mi 



Relevant to the film screenings at the YWCA this weak, the attached 
materials describing the Community Film Workshop Council ^ pass on FYI* 

After discussing the subject with Chuck, I called Cliff Frasier 
Monday of this week to give him some background on the NAEB. I made two 
suggestions to him: 

1* That he try to work through and with management of our 
member ETV stations around the country re training, 
funding and possibly exposure of local film workshop 
efforts. He has a list of our stations and will pursue 
that route. 

2. That he try to attend at least a part of the Convention - 

an experience that could do more than anything else to focus 
what our Association is in relation to what he wants to do* 



Ken Clark 
Project Director 

October 1968 

Washington, D. C 



The self-imposed mandate public broadcasting has placed upon itself 
to invest in minority interests is being met. I think my reports of progress, 
which at best represents a scant beginning, suggest a professional and per¬ 
sonal commitment that daily changes the terrain and sub-strata of public 
broadcasting in America. We are an industry in motion. We care. We are 
shouting down a history of indifference, of prejudice, of ignorance. It is 
clear that black Americans, Mexican-Americans, poor white Americans, 
American Indians, the urban-disadvantaged and the rural-deprived have a 
deep pre-occupation with us, the public broadcasters; we have a reciprocal 
bind to them. We are all joined together in an arena of social change. Our 
charge: to utilize the personnel and technical resources of the electronic 
media in every possible way toward a betterment of the human condition. 

It is easy to settle in self-congratulations over what has been done, 
and that is not a small effort. It is more difficult to assess what our failures 
are through co-mission and omission and gauge what still needs to be done. 

Television and radio stations throughout the nation are engaged in 
programming for, by and about disadvantaged peoples. The semantics of 
the effort change frequently. "Disadvantaged", "culturally different", "ghetto 
dwellers", "inner city" and "inner core dwellers" - these are some of the 
phrases applied to "the people left behind". Basically, we are talking about 
anyone, of any age, who has been held back from an enriching education, who 
has been on the receiving end of police over-reaction, who lives in sub¬ 
standard housing, who is over-charged for goods and services, who is under¬ 
paid for his employment, who has unequal legal protection, who is trapped 
in the demoralizing encirclement of welfare, who is judged first by racist 
prerequisites and only second as a Man. We are talking about millions of 
Americans who look around themselves and know the shuddering reality of 
not belonging to the abundant land. We are talking about people deprived of 
their own historical heritage. They are the have-nots in a nation unable to 
justify their predicament. 

An historical glance at our development as a concerned industry shows 
that Whites talking to Whites about Blacks gave way to Whites talking to Blacks, 
and then to Blacks talking to Blacks about Blacks. Now the Blacks are talking 
about the Whites and we’ve come full circle. But the time for talk and more 
talk is behind us. Black Americans may still mention "Charlie", but note 
they no longer address him as "Mister". "The Man" is being fairly met, sized 
up and acted upon. In this dramatic confrontation, clear in its political- 
sociological-economic implications, is found the will to do something. That 


” something” is not always clearly defined or neatly executed. But the effort 
is unmistakable. This is action NOW. 

Program approaches are many and varied. * It might be useful to 
briefly highlight a few station efforts. WBUR-FM, Boston made contact 
with simmering Roxbury, set up a citizens' committee from the black 
community, hired three black anchor-men and went on the air with "The 
Drum” - ninety minutes nightly. The black Bostonians have a voice. 

WHA-TV and FM devoted one week of saturation day and night broad¬ 
casting to investigate the plight of Milwaukee’s inner city poor. That's a 
lot of air time. The commitment paid off in exciting public service. What 
does that mean to the blacks of Milwaukee? They credit the series for the 
passage of Milwaukee's first open housing ordinance. 

KLRN, San Antonio-Austin is tackling the Mexican-American's de¬ 
privation with "Periobico”, a series done in Spanish, primarily on remote 
in the barrio, by barrio residents - expressing their ideas, their hopes, 
their demands. KLRN is the catalytic agent giving thousands of people their 
own medium - for the first time. 

WCVE, Richmond is taping a thrity part series of half-hour programs 
titled "Americans from Africa: A History”. It's long overdue. 

Ten-watts can make a big sound too. KFJC-FM, Los Altos Hills plans 
to make day-time weekend programming a minority right. Saturday is for 
the black community, Sunday for Spanish-speaking Americans, 

WBFO, Buffalo has a store front satellite station in operation - in 
spite of a lack of foundation funds. KBPS, Portland has the city's only phone-in 
series for black students. WMHT-TV, Schenectady hits hard with a phone-in 
for adults. 

WTHS, Miami shares it's television series' audio track with a local 
FM outlet. WETA-TV, Washington, D. C. emphasizes jobs as does the 
South Carolina ETV Center. The Alabama ETV Network programs for the 
rural Appalachia housewife while WHYY, Philadelphia carries meetings of 
the School Board live and in angry session. 

Small stations, large stations, state and regional networks and the 
tape networks of NER and ETS/PS, NET and PBL - a variety of program 
sources and program carriers and program organizations - each with a role 
to play, each a part of the social action fabric in public broadcasting today. 

* See Appendix A 

NOTE: The initial television report and the addenda were prepared by 
Dr. Richard J. Meyer with Mr. Chalmers H. Marquis. The 
third report was prepared by Michael Hobbs. 


Some stations have reported difficulty in making meaningful contact 
with the ghetto. Some stations have said they offer training to minority 
people and have to go begging for applicants. Some stations say they can't 
find qualified men and women who are black to write, produce and direct. 

Some station producers find management still reluctant to make an all-out 
effort to change traditional thought regarding this new kind of programming. 

No one says these issues are easily resolved. The brighter aspect is that 
for every negative there is now a ringing positive to counterbalance. The 
pendulum is swinging. There is change of telling proportions. Programming 
and employment and employment practices of the past are daily being negated, 
altered, or thrown out all together. Public broadcasters across the country 
are discovering that deep involvement in the black-white confrontation is not 
only necessary to the health of a viable station operation; it is ethically, 
morally right - and a whole new audience and talent pool are being secured 
in the process. 

Events that would have seemed surprising even a year ago are proving 
bonus factors for those stations in the movement. KLRN-TV San Antonio- 
Austin wanted a black sportscaster for its hard news show. None was available, 
so the station hired the Dean of Men from a local high school on a part time 
basis, trained him, and watched him become an articulate and community- 
applauded sports reporter. The employment of minority people is on an 
ascending curve. * 

WTHS-TV, Miami needed black youth expertese for its daily half- 
hour series; the station invited the militant Black Students' Union of the 
University of Miami to research, write and produce news, history, and other 
features. The result: a cooperative venture that is providing a rich, innovative 
viewing experience. 

I need not labor this point. Public broadcasting has joined its multiple 
forces to contribute solutions to the race and poverty problems of America. 

The research of the past three months amply illustrates this. The question 
now is simply where do we go from here? There is sufficient evidence from 
station response to the program reports to indicate this kind of sharing of 
information must continue. 

Item: A particular underlining of public broadcasting's commitment 
is anticipated in the forthcoming national convention to be held in Washington, 

D. C. , November 20-22, 1968. A number of special interest sessions relating 
to the topic of this report are planned regarding broadcast radio and television, 
instructional programs, training and employment and promotion. The central 
focus will occur on Friday morning, November 22nd at the General Session 
when an all black panel will discuss "Soul: Does Public Broadcasting Have It?" 
a panel to be moderated by Dr. Kenneth B. Clark, President, Metropolitan 
Applied Research Center. At this writing three panelists have given firm 

* See Appendix B 


acceptance: William Grier, M. D. , co-author of "Black Rage”; Dr. Nathan 
Wright, Chairman of the International Conferences of Black Power and author 
of many books; and The Rev. Jesse Jackson, National Director of SCLC's 
"Operation Breadbasket". The communication hang-up and what to do about 
it will be scrutinized. Following the general session, the convention will 
divide into television and radio special interest workshops to view and listen 
to extraordinary examples of programs for the disadvantaged, followed by 
explanations by representatives of the particular producing stations. It is 
possible that this one morning may be one of the most significant meetings 
of this or any previous NAEB gathering. It will indicate the social conscience 
of our industry past and present and, hopefully, will point to the various 
avenues of programming and employment we intend to explore in the immediate 

Item: For the first time, the NAEB is hunting funds to provide fifty 
travel grants to minority peoples who are educational broadcasters - hosts, 
producers, writers, directors, cameramen, etc. - men and women who might 
not otherwise come from all over the nation to participate in this convention. 
They will represent a variety of jobs and the full spectrum of radio and tele¬ 
vision stations organizational types. We expect the grant-recipients to help 
continue the dialogue started this summer based on various backgrounds of 
entry and experience into the industry. 

Item: For the future, I would like to propose several specifics that 
relate to the present project. They are offered in the twin hopes that the 
individualized work relating to race and poverty will be continued and expanded, 
and that the general idea of sharing program information can be extended to 
encompass other areas that are relevant to public broadcasting's side of the 
electronic fence. 


I. Organization 
A Personnel 

1. Project Director 

2. Associate Director 

3. Secretary 

II. Implementation 

A Duties of the Project Director 

1. Research and write program reports (explore relevance of 
combining radio and television information into a single 
weekly report). 


2. Program reports to stress public broadcasting and black 
America as a first level priority. 

3. Other disadvantaged groups will be studied and reported with 
an emphasis given in proportion to a growing representation 
in the industry. Spanish-speaking Americans, poor whites, 
American Indians, Puerto Ricans and special occupational 
groups (i. e. migrant workers) are understood to be a part 
of this category. 

4. Pursue a continuing study of employment practices regarding 
minority groups. Initiate and maintain a personnel bank as 
an aid to member stations seeking minority group employees; 
this to be coordinated in any useful way with the NAEB Director 
of the Personnel Service. 

5. Inform himself toward becoming a resource man for funding, 
particularly for smaller projects. If a station is unable to 
hire a part time teacher or writer, for example, or is unable 
to produce a pilot for lack of funds, the Project Director 
should be able to suggest fund sources directly related to 

the project requirements. 

6. Develop a working knowledge of all training and workshop 
programs currently extant in public broadcasting. 

7. Funnel promotional and public relations information of the 
project to the appropriate NAEB office. 

8. Work on experimental aspects of the project. 

B. Duties of the Associate Director 

1. Assist the Director in full implementation of all aspects of 
the project. 

2. Particularly stress development of program idea sharing 
other than programs for the disadvantaged. 

C. Other Program Areas 

The Project should explore all pertinent program areas 
beyond the specifics of "programs for the disadvantaged". 

The need for sharing program information in general is 
real and immediate. Priorities have to be ascertained; 
they will continually change. For example, "politics and 
public broadcasting" would provide a useful and wide-ranging 

- 6 - 

study this year. Programming for children, "actualities", 
remotes, satellite stations and foreign language broadcast 
and student unrest, could clearly be included in an expanded 

D. Experimentation 

The success of the National Educational Radio Network public 
affairs dial-in service suggests the telephone tape concept should 
be more fully explored to enrich the basic idea-sharing concept 
of the project. 

1. Telephone-tape reports in synopsis could augment the written 
reports. Any member station should be able to dial a number 
in Washington, D. C. any time to get a capsule pre-recorded 
version of the longer written report in print. 

2. Telephone-tapes could be used for hard programs as well. 

"Hot" interviews, special mini-essays, conference-call 
discussions on topical items should be provided the dial service. 

3. Periodic conference calls should be initiated to alert stations 
to timely information not appropriate to inclusion in the written 
or dial-in telephone-tape services. For example: News of 
new HEW fund developments. 

E. Budget* 

* * * * 

In conclusion I point out that we public broadcasters face a numbing, 
complex communications obstacle course. The historical non-dialogue 
between majority-minority interests has been sufficiently labored. We must 
be concerned now with action, with forward movement, with positivism of 
unique dimensions. We must inform ourselves through every possible means. 
The black community is speaking if we'll only listen. We must read "Black 
Rage" by Dr. William Grier and Dr. Price Cobbs, Dr. Nathan Wright's 
"Let's Work Together", Eldredge Cleaver's "Soul on Ice", Dr. Kenneth Clark*s 
"Dark Ghetto", the "Autobiography of Malcolm X" - and other work by black 
writers - read and understand the powerful ideas searing their pages. We 
must talk to the rural and urban ghettos and help them talk back to us. We 
must catch up with America 1968, identify her weaknesses and use her strengths 
to apply the electronic media to immediate solutions. 

The way ahead is dark. It is uncertain. It may prove frightening. 

But we must try the untried, dare the impossible, chart ourselves into the 
known and the unknown with a conviction that what we are doing is right and 

* See Appendix C 


in certain knowledge that the alternatives of ignorance, prejudice and 
violence cannot be supported. We must share our technical expertese and 
our creative abilities with each other and with minority Americans whoever 
they are, whatever their circumstances. To withhold our best selves invites 
disaster of shattering prospect not only to our industry, but to our nation. 

We are embarked upon an historic journey to decency, excellence and hope. 

To go on we must alter traditional thinking; we must remain objectively 
committed. There will be times when we discover ourselves as weary, 
discouraged travellers in an alien land. But that land is, in part alien by 
our own devising. We dare not, ever again, continue our journey as strangers. 

Appendix A 

Television and Radio Program Reports 
as of 

October 17, 1968 

National Educational Radio 

1346 Connecticut Avenue N.W. Washington D.C. 20036 Telephone 667-6000 



October 11, 1968 

Eight Report, Radio Programs for the Disadvantaged 
Ken Clark, Project Director 

"In the area of human relations three common prob¬ 
lems face almost all rural Appalachian communities: 
inadequate education, ineffective communication, 
and the lack of individual motivation» We have 
found that educational radio can solve all three 
problems o *• 

Henry W. Lamb, Jr. 

General Manager, WRHS 
Robbinsville, North Carolina 

In 1967small, isolated Robbinsville, North Carolina was effectively 
walled in-froin the rest of Appalachia and from the world. Poverty, 
illiteracy and natural terrain combined to make communication 
through broadcasting an_impossible dream. But not to Henry W. Lamb, 
Jr. and Walter Denton, instructors at Robbinsville High School. 

To them, the idea of education through radio seemed possible and 

An allocation of $2,000 was made by the Graham County School Board 
after a carefully researched proposal was presented by Lamb and 
Denton. It was agreed that Lamb, a music and speech teacher, 
would handle administration, programming, production and instruct¬ 
ion. Denton, an electronics instructor, volunteered to find and/or 
build the necessary equipment and parts. 

Slowly, patiently, the project moved ahead. Twenty percent of the 
Robbinsville High School Junior class exoressed willinnnp.^ 

page tw-o 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
October 11, 1968 

Meanwhile, Denton took on those students designated as engineer- 
trainees o 

Construction was begun. A studio began to take shape, and out of 
a variety of materials, including some used TV sets, a console 
and all the companion equipment was assembled and made operational» 

WRHS went on the air with an output of between five and ten watts 
(depending on the atmosphere and humidity),. The signal, broadcast 
over power lines, could go as far as 7^ miles, using a satellite 

Student-produced programs, combine with NER offerings to provide 
a variety of listening experiences„ 

lo For the elementary grades who listen in their 
classrooms, programs in languages, art, social 
studies, science and music have opened new 

2. On the high school level, Henry Lamb suggests: 

"programs are directed at the prospective college 
student, and at the four-out-of-five high school 
students (including dropouts) who do not plan to 
go to college. Through WRHS, these students 
listen to representatives of varying vocations 
discuss the educational requirements, advantages 
and' limitations of their respective fields, or 

to programs dramatizing the correct way to apply 
for a job, how to keep it, or how to gain ad¬ 
vancement. - 

3. Educationally deprived adults too are serviced 
by the small, ambitious station that brings to 
those who cannot read an increasing number of 
programs presented in a variety of ways - pro¬ 
grams that offer cultural and vocational enrich¬ 
ment historically denied these people before 

- - WRHS went on the air c 

In the first year of operation, nearly 300 (out of the school’s 
400 student enrollment) participated one way or another in program 

The experiment in Robbinsville has been an unqualified success, so 
much so, in fact, that the station responded to continuing requests 
for information from other schools by forming Delta Engineering, a 

page three 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
October 11, 1968 

consulting organization employing students from the high school's 
Vocational Electronics Department and the WRHS staff. Plans are 
even underway to establish a high school radio network which will 
link together a large number of Appalachia schools. 

WRHS is now on the air from 7:55 a.m. to 7:15 p.m, Monday through 
Saturday, pursuing extended education pragmatically and with imag¬ 

CONTACT: Henry W. Lamb, Jr., General Manager 

WDTR-FM, Detroit Public Schools has reported in again. Of parti¬ 
cular interest is the fact that Program Director Dorothy F. Patterson 
got immediate response to the Program Report dated September 27th. 

Two other stations expressed interest in the Detroit station act¬ 
ivities - one asking for information about its workshop program, 
the other querying the availability of WDTR's "The Negro American" 
series. This best illustrates the value of program information 
sharing. We have so much to learn from each other. 

WDTR has produced additional segments for its "On Alert" series. 
First, the station will offer a three part series titled "The 
Council and the Citizens." Dorothy Patterson reports a need to 
examine the controversial question of the existing system of 
electing Detroit’s Common Council (now elected from the city-at- 
large). The system has come under fire in recent years, principally 
from members of 'Detroit's black community. Careful investigation 
of the issues will be treated in three parts: "Proposals for 
Change," "Representation and Race," and "Political Power and the 
Negro in Detroit." 

The second addition to "On Alert" takes up the controversial issue 
of black history - commission and omission in American history text¬ 
books. Who has the right to interpret history? Can it be quest¬ 
ioned? Changed? This section, titled “Teachers and Textbooks" con¬ 
siders this very real battle that is being waged. An article 
published by the Michigan State Department of Education, A Report 
on the Treatment of Minorities in American History Textbooks offers 
the following position: 

"Blacks from various points on the civil rights spectrum 
have shown uncommon unity in launching attacks on one 
segment of the education front - the content and select¬ 
ion of textbooks in United States history. The attacks 
have been singularly effective. Typically, they have 
sent social studies curriculum experts scurrying into 

page four 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
October 11, 1968 

the rear areas, looking for publishers with the ammuni¬ 
tion to help shore up flagging defenses» The most com¬ 
monly adopted tactic of the educator-publisher forces 
have been a combination of holding action, strategic 
withdrawal, and scorched earth policy." 

Publisher policy and professional historian prerogatives not¬ 
withstanding, Station WDTR feels further airing of the issues is 
in order. Consequently, the varying topics of -'History and Human 
Relations," "The Historian Looks at Textbooks," and "History and 
the High School Teacher" are now on tape, ready for WDTR listeners 

CONTACT: Dorothy F e Patterson, Program Director 

* * * * 

WSHA, Shaw University, Raleigh, North Carolina, goes on the air 
in November of this year. Shaw, with an enrollment of 1030 stud¬ 
ents (all black but five) has decided to move into the communi¬ 
cations field in a carefully designed program of development. 

Stage one will see the station begin its initial program service 
on a five days per week basis, broadcasting from 4:00 to 10:00 p.m 

1. 4:00 - 6:00 will stress news, educational and 
cultural information for the broad Raleigh audience. 

2. 6:00 - 8:00 is planned primarily for the general 
Shaw University community (faculty and students) and 
will present a variety of interviews, discussion and 
history programs. 

3. 8:00 - 10:00 will be primarily for the Shaw stud¬ 
ents - their music, their views etc. 

As soon as possible, the program schedule will move out into the 
Raleigh community, emphasizing materials that have particular 
interest and relevancy to ghetto residents (i.e. social security, 
health, problems of the aged etc.) 

Stage Two will take place in about two years with the opening of 
a department of communications that will include rhetoric, speech 
and hearing as well as broadcasting. A full undergraduate broad¬ 
casting major will then be available. 

Stage Three brings the training up to the Master’s degree level. 

page five 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
October 11, 1968 

The studios, now located in the Shaw University Library are ambitious 
and well equipped: three studios, each with its own control room, 
a music-tape library, an engineering workshop, a newsroom and 
classroom make up the layout 0 

Shaw hopes to not only enrich the student experience in the broadest 
definition of communications, but to train outstanding candidates 
for future jobs in the broadcasting industry., 

CONTACT: Betty Czech, Station Director 

Appendix B 

The following list of black Americans and Mexican-Americans represents 
a small and partial compilation of peoples from minority groups engaged in 
educational and instructional broadcasting today. 

1. Sylvia Rolle - WTHS-TV, Miami. Hostess of daily 1/2 hour 
"It* s Our Bag. " 

2. Abel Franco - KCET-TV, Los Angeles. Executive Story Editor, 
"Cancion de la Raza. " (drama) 

3. Jose Vejar - KCET-TV, Los Angeles. Intern in Public Affairs. 
Researcher for education specials. 

4. James Tilmon - WTTW-TV, Chicago. Host, "Our People." 

5. Ralph Proctor - WQED-TV, Pittsburgh. Producer, "Black Horizon. " 

6. John Tweedle - WTTW-TV, Chicago. Producer, "Our People." 

7. Tony Batten - KOED-TV, San Francisco. Former producer, "Black, 
Blues, Black!" Currently a newsman. 

8. Jim Boyd, NET, New York. Former producer-host of WGBH-TV 
(Boston) "Say, Brother. " 

9. Sarah Ann Shaw - WGBH-TV, Boston. Reporter-interviewer, 

"Say, Brother. " 

10. Ray Richardson - WGBH-TV, Boston. Producer, "Say, Brother. " 

11. Ellis Haizlip - WNDT-TV, New York. Producer, "Soul!" 

12. Reuben Phillips - WNDT-TV, New York. Music Director, "Soul!" 

13. Ellwood Berry - WCNY-TV, Syracuse. Co-producer, "Black on Black. 

14. Eleanor Russell - WCNY-TV, Syracuse. Co-producer, "Black on 
Black. " 

15. Tony Brown - WTVS-TV, Detroit. Producer, "For Whites Only", 
Co-producer, "CPT" (Colored People's Time". ) 

16. Gilbert Maddox - WTVS-TV, Detroit. Co-producer, "CPT." 

17. Chuck Richardson - WVIZ-TV, Clevleand. Producer, "Black 
Peoplehood. " 

- 2 - 

18. Jim Terrell - WNTV-TV, Greenville, N. C. Host, "Job Man Caravan. " 

19. Audrey Harvey - WMHT-TV, Schenectady. Producer-Hostess, 

"Black Telecon. " 

20. Jacqueline Toilet - KUHT-TV, Houston. Co-Host, "The Way It Is." 

21. Gil Murillo - KLRN-TV, San Antonio-Austin. Associate Producer, 
"Periobico. " 

22. Rolando Morales - KLRN-TV, San Antonio-Austin. Director, 
"Periobico. " 

23. Charles Akins - KLRN-TV, San Antonio-Austin. Sportscaster. 

24. Chuck Holloway - KDPS-FM, Des Moines. Host-interviewer, 

"Soul Session. " 

25. Carl Williams - KDPS-FM, Des Moines. Writer-Producer. 

26. Jim Reed - KDPS-FM, Des Moines. ITV producer, Des Moines 
Public Schools. 

27. Rev. Walter Hoard - WUWM-FM, Milwaukee. Producer-host, 

28. Guy Colston - WBFO-FM, Buffalo. Writer-Producer-Director. 

29. Jimmy Byrd - WBUR-FM, Boston. Anchor man, "The Drum. " 

30. Chuck Core - WBUR-FM, Boston. Anchorman, "The Drum." 

31. Bill Slater - WBUR-FM, Boston. Anchorman, "The Drum. " 

32. Ida Johnson Hill - WCVE-TV, Richmond. TV Teacher. 

33. Victor Webb - San Francisco State College. Associate Professor 
of Broadcasting and Communication Arts. 

34. Myrtle McCall - WITF-TV, Hershey, Pa. Producer, Funding 

35. Freddy Cunningham - WMSB-TV, East Lansing. Cameraman. 

36. Frank Ayres - Michigan State TV Instructional Media Center. 

37. Walter Brooks - Maryland Educational Cultural Broadcasting 
Commission. Executive Producer, Urban Affairs. 

Appendix C 


Project Director $19, 000 

Associate Director 17, 000 

Secretary 7, 000 


Social benefits 10% 4, 300 

Total personnel expense $47, 300 

Travel (75 days & airfare) 6, 000 

Telephone 3,600 

Supplies, including report stock 4, 000 

Printing and distribution of reports 
52 reports + $320 16, 640 

Office space, furniture and equipment 3, 600 

Administrative overhead 8, 100 

Annual total $89, 240 

Before the 

Washington, D.C. 20554 

In the Matter of ) 


Petition for rule making to ) Docket 18244 

require broadcast licensees to ) RM-1144 

show non-discrimination in ) 

their employment practices. ) 

Before the Commission: 


Comes now the National Association of Educational 

1 / 

Broadcasters (NAEB) and, through its attorneys, files its 

comments in the above proceeding. 

1. The NAEB commends the Commission for its forthright 
policy statement concerning non-discrimination in broadcast employ¬ 
ment and programming practices. The NAEB agrees with the Commission 
that serious public interest questions are raised when a substantial 
charge is made that a broadcast licensee is deliberately discrimina¬ 
tory in its employment or programming policies and practices. Section 
VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 establishes a national policy 
against discrimination because of "race, color, religion, sex or 
national origin” by employers in any industry affecting interstate 
commerce who employ at least 25 persons, with respect to hiring, dis¬ 
charging or training of employees, and with respect to fixing their 
terms and conditions of employment. Likewise, Executive Order 11246 

1/ The NAEB is an organization of educational institutions and indi¬ 
viduals concerned with the development of educational radio and 
television. On behalf of its membership, the NAEB has regularly 
participated in rule-making proceedings before the Commission con¬ 
cerning matters of interest to educational broadcasters and reser¬ 
vations for non-commercial educational use. The NAEB has long 
supported the Commission’s policy to reserve a fair share of the 
available frequency space for non-commercial educational radio and 
television use. 

- 2 

proscribes any such discrimination by federal contractors and sub¬ 
contractors and recipients of federal financial assistance involving 
construction contracts. These broad national policies provide firm 
support for the Commission’s statement concerning non-discrimination 
in the broadcast industry. Moreover, the requirements of the Communi¬ 
cations Act, that grants may be made only upon a finding that the 
"public interest, convenience and necessity" would be served thereby, 
lend further strength to the Commission’s determination that it may 
not properly ignore patterns of discrimination by broadcast licensees. 

2. Therefore, the NAEB believes that it is fitting and 
proper for the Commission to exhort licensees to avoid discrimination 
in all aspects of their operations, and to provide appropriate policy 
guidelines for handling complaints of discriminatory practices. The 
Commission in its decision has announced that it will handle complaints 
with respect to employment discrimination where referral to the Equal 
Employment Opportunities Commission or State and local authorities 

is not appropriate. Discrimination in licensee programming efforts 
would be handled directly by the Commission on a case-by-case basis. 

The NAEB agrees that these are reasonable procedures which are designed 
to avoid duplication of efforts by agencies with differing functions, 
to prevent unnecessary burdens on broadcast licensees, and to provide 
avenues of relief against established discriminatory practices. 

3. Included in the Commission’s decision is a Notice of 
Proposed Rule Making to provide for the posting of notices by broad¬ 
cast employers not covered by the Civil Rights Act, informing job 
applicants of the equal employment laws and of their rights to seek 
redress for discriminatory practices. Such a notice would be posted 

in a prominent place in the employment office. As a matter of principle, 
it seems difficult to argue that broadcasters not under the Civil Rights 


Act should not provide some reasonable assurance of non-discriminatory 
practices by means of a simple posting requirement. The Commission 
should not, however, impose any such requirement which amounts to 
duplication of efforts already under the aegis of other Federal or 
State agencies. To the extent that the Commission’s posting re¬ 
quirement would take into account the posting provisions of other 
applicable statutes, the NAEB would have no objection to the proposed 
posting rule. 

4. The Commission’s Notice of Proposed Rule Making also 
suggests that a similar notice may be required to be placed in bold 
type on the employment application, in order to inform the prospective 
employee that discrimination is prohibited and that any person, with 
grounds to believe that he or she has been discriminated against, should 
notify the Federal Communications Commission. The NAEB does not be¬ 
lieve that a specific notice on employment application forms is neces¬ 
sary. Some broadcast stations, particularly smaller stations, do not 
have official application forms. Particularly with respect to educa¬ 
tional broadcast stations, the additional requirement of establishing 
official application forms, or modifying existing forms, could prove 
a substantial financial burden for stations traditionally faced with 
extremely tight budgets. The Commission’s proposal appears to place 
an undue importance upon the procedural details of non-discrimination, 
when the proper focus in all instances should be the actual practices 
of the station. While responsible broadcasters would not oppose the 
principles of non-discrimination in hiring situations, there are legiti¬ 
mate reasons why broadcasters, and especially educational broadcasters, 
could be concerned about the additional burdens of paper-work which 
Commission proposals of this nature usually generate. 


5. For this same reason, the NAEB does not believe that it 
is necessary to require a specific showing of non-discriminatory prac¬ 
tices in applications for a construction permit, and assignment, trans¬ 
fer and renewal applications, as also suggested by the Commission. As 
the Commission itself has noted in its policy statement, it was of the 
opinion that a showing of compliance with non-discriminatory standards 
in a renewal application was no more required than a showing of com¬ 
pliance with the standards of the "fairness" doctrine concerning contro¬ 
versial issues of public importance. Until a specific complaint is 
brought to its attention, the Commission rightly assumes that a broad¬ 
cast licensee is fulfilling its public interest obligations. Thus, the 
standard complaint procedure provides an effective vehicle for the 
airing of any charges of discriminatory employment or programming 
practices. In fact, the NAEB believes that the Commission might well 
consider an expedited procedure for handling such complaints of dis¬ 
crimination, along the lines of its procedures for handling complaints 
in the area of political broadcasting, in view of the substantial public 
policies involved. 

6. These recommendations are made by the NAEB only because 
of the burdens that the Commission’s proposal may make upon non-commer¬ 
cial educational broadcasters. The NAEB is in agreement with the 
basic goals of the Commission’s policy statement, and it is convinced 
that educational stations across the nation also share these same goals 
and principles. But educational stations face difficulties of a 
financial, administrative and staff nature that are not present with 
respect to many commercial broadcast operations, and therefore, they 
must weigh carefully Commission proposals which will increase the 
workload and cost for underfinanced and understaffed educational broad- 


cast operations, to determine whether the results to be obtained from 
the proposals are worth the additional effort and expense. As shown 
in further detail below, the NAEB is convinced that the problems with 
which the Commission’s policy statement are concerned, in the areas 
of discriminatory employment and programming practices, are not problems 
which confront educational broadcast stations. NAEB’s studies and 
knowledge of educational stations indicate that non-discriminatory 
employment and programming patterns are the norm at these stations. 

Added paper burdens to demonstrate compliance with non-discrimination 
are not warranted, absent a showing that discriminatory practices 
prevail, and the complaint procedure is a sufficient technique to 
guard against any isolated instances of discriminatory behavior. 

Nor does the NAEB believe that the complaint procedure inappropriately 
shifts any substantial burden upon complaining parties, who themselves 
may find it arduous to assemble an extensive showing of all of the 
facts concerning an alleged discriminatory situation, since the filing 
of a complaint itself would shift the burden of showing compliance 
with non-discriminatory standards upon the station involved. The NAEB 
submits, however, that this case-by-case handling of specific complaints 
is infinitely superior to proposals that educational broadcast stations 
must demonstrate, on a regular basis and in substantial detail, that 
they are doing what they are compelled to do not only by the license 
granted to them by the Commission but by the very nature of their non¬ 
profit, non-commercial, community-motivated character. 

7. Accordingly, the NAEB urges that, even if the Commission 
should determine that a showing of compliance with non-discriminatory 
practices is required with respect to some broadcast application forms, 
this showing should not be required with respect to non-commercial 


educational broadcast application forms. As the Commission knows, 

educational applicants utilize application forms for construction 

permits, licenses and renewals which require significantly less 

information and detail than comparable forms for commercial applicants, 

and unless and until the Commission’s complaint procedures develop 

that significant discriminatory employment or programming practices 

occur in non-commercial educational broadcast operations, these 

separate application forms should not be complicated by further paper 

showings of compliance with non-discriminatory standards. In this 

connection it is to be noted that the bulk of educational station 

licensees are grantees of Federal matching funds from the Department 

of Health, Education and Welfare, and must, as a condition to such 

grants provide assurance inter alia, in Form HEW-OE-4152 that 

"The applicant will incorporate into any contracts exceeding 
$10,000 for the construction of an antenna-tower system or 
microwave-tower systems, the provisions for equal employ¬ 
ment opportunity for all qualified persons without regard 
to race, creed, color or national origin, as prescribed 
by Executive Order No. 10925 (March 6, 1961) and amended 
by Executive Order No. 11114 (June 22, 1963). (The agree¬ 
ment of the applicant and the language to be inserted is 
that contained in the regulations of the President’s 
Committee on Equal Employment Opportunities, Title 41, 

Code of Federal Regulations, Section 60-1.3(b).)” 

and also that 

”In determining community participation in the activities of 
the educational television station involved in this project, 
there will be no discrimination against any individual or 
organization on account of race, creed, color, or national 
origin of any individual.’’ 

Copies of these applications are already required to be filed with 
the Federal Communications Commission, so that this Commission already 
has a continuing record of the licensee’s assurances respecting non- 
discriminatory employment and programming practices. Any further re¬ 
quirements by the Commission in this area would be needlessly duplicative 
and time-consuming. 


8 The NAEB has long been concerned that all educational 
broadcast stations are fulfilling their statutory duties as broad¬ 
cast licensees in the areas of non-discriminatory employment and 
programming practices. These areas were the subject of extensive 
discussion and comment at the last NAEB Annual Convention, held last 
November in Denver, Colorado. The agenda for the upcoming NAEB 
Annual Convention, to be held in Washington, D. C», in November 1968 
will also include coverage and analysis of problems and practices in 
the areas of employment and programming. On November 21, 1968, a 
workshop session on the topic ’’Career Development: How to Begin the 
Job Search” will include discussion of minority employment problems. 

On November 22, 1968, the general session will consist of a panel 
discussion entitled, ’’Soul: Does Broadcasting Have It?” Panelists 
will include Dr, Kenneth Clark, President of the Metropolitan Applied 
Research Center Corporation, New York City, and author of ’’Dark 
Ghetto”; William Grier, M.D., psychiatrist, and co-author of ’’Black 
Rage”; Dr, Nathan Wright, Chairman of the International Conference 
on Black Power, and author of ’’Let's Live Together”; The Reverend 
Jesse Jackson, National Director of SCLC 9 s'Operation Breadbasket”; 
and Gregg Morris, actor, co-star of television 9 s ’’Mission: Impossible” 
and recording artist After the general session, a number of work¬ 
shop sessions will be devoted to minority programming areas, including 
specific case histories for educational radio, specific case histories 
for educational television, a workshop on public relations in the area 
of human relations, and a workshop by the Instructional Division of 
NAEB evaluating the film ’’One Nation Indivisible”. In addition, now 


in progress before the Employment Practices Committee of the NAEB is 
an extensive study of employment practice and opportunities in the 
educational broadcast field. Information submitted on questionnaires 
sent to member stations demonstrate that substantial efforts have 
been made to date by many educational broadcast stations to encourage 
non-discriminatory broadcast employment habits,, Without in any way 
attempting to cover all of the activities of educational broadcasters, 
the NAEB desires to set forth for the Commission’s benefit selected 
examples of the range of non-discriminatory hiring techniques employed 
by educational broadcast stations across the country: 

— At Station WAMU (American University), the Urban Broad¬ 
casting Workshop, a University-Industry Project, is in its second 
year With the help of school counselors, NAACP, Urban League, etc», 
high school juniors of promise are selected from Washington, D, C, 
schools and offered a tuition-free, intensive, one-month summer work¬ 
shop Free lunch is provided and when more funds can be found, car¬ 
fare will be paid as well Most of these students (about 17 each 
year) have had no exposure to, or thought of, broadcasting as a 
career. Some first-year "graduates" of the Workshop have been 
picked up in the second year 


on work-study programs, scholarships, etc., and about ten of them, 
at least, will enter college, with several in broadcasting majors. 

— At Station WNYC, New York, there has been a collaboration 
for the past five years with the George Westinghouse High School (Tech¬ 
nical) to provide instruction and practice for 25 students each year 
who seek a First Class FCC license. The basic requirement is a high 
school graduation certificate. To date, the ethnic mix has approxi¬ 
mated equal thirds of whites, blacks and Puerto Ricans. Station WNYC’s 
UHF station is the "laboratory" for the instruction, and the station 
guarantees a job. 

— The South Carolina Educational Television Commission has 
regularly participated in the work-study program sponsored by Allen 
and Benedict Universities. The program serves the dual purpose of 
helping minority students continue their education while introducing 
them to the fields of education and television as potential careers. 

The Commission recently received funds from the Ford Foundation to 
do a series of programs, and find a continuing format, for matching 
young Negroes to job opportunities available to them. The Commission 
is also negotiating with two of South Carolina’s Technical Education 
Cent ers to develop technical training curricula. 

-- At Station WGVE, a high school radio station at Gary, 
Indiana, the station’s operation will be moved from an essentially 
white school to a technical high school which will draw from all over 
the city. At present, 35 students are in the radio broadcasting pro¬ 
gram; 23 of these students are non-white, including several Mexican 
and Puerto Rican students. 

-- Station KSPS-TV, Spokane, Washington, will have this Fall 
six full-time cameramen and lighting technicians screened by the Youth 


Opportunity Corps. All will represent minority, poverty and drop-out 
families. Their salaries will be paid by cooperating businesses, and 
will provide staff to the station that it could not otherwise afford 
while at the same time helping the disadvantaged in a productive way. 

— Station KCTS-TV, Seattle, Washington, has created a 
special position — Equipment Technician — and hires members of 
minority groups for this position. The station encourages them to 
go to school simultaneously, so that they may be upgraded as soon as 
possible to Television Technician, The station will also recruit and 
train a producer-director, and already has some minority personnel 
on its staff and is constantly trying to improve the ratio. 

— Station WHYY, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, reports that 
it attempted a trainee program for minority groups last year, but 
ran into difficulty with the union in regard to production and 
engineering assignments. The station intends to try again this Fall 
to establish a meaningful trainee program. 

— Station WVIZ-TV, Cleveland, Ohio, reports that it has 
expended funds to train Negroes but has found that the investment 
of time and effort has been dissipated because commercial stations 
lure these trainees away with offers of higher pay. 

— Station WDCN-TV, Nashville, Tennessee, has, along with 
other commercial broadcasters, accepted groups of 8-12 students from 
area high schools, under a year-round program which offers about 12 
two-hour sessions in non-class hours. 

— Stations KDPS-FM-TV, Des Moines, Iowa , are currently 
working in cooperation with the Des Moines Public Schools in the 
training of multi-racial high school students in the areas of radio 
and television production, communication electronics, commercial art, etc 


— Station WQLN, Erie, Pennsylvania, has a training program 
which offers part-time employment and job training to young Negroes, 
three at a time. The station also works closely with the local anti¬ 
poverty council. 

—■ Station KERA-TV, Dallas, Texas, through its station 
manager, reports that it has no members of minority groups on its 
staff, but states that 

"As a result I have undertaken an active campaign to 
recruit people from these minority groups for training 
positions and positions of responsibility by Channel 13. 

I have spoken to the head of the Urban League and he has 
put me in touch with several people who are now writing 
and determining whether they could come to work for the 

I have not yet had the chance to contact Negro colleges 
in the area, though this will be done within the next 
two weeks. The school I think we would especially develop 
a great working relationship with is Bishop College. 

I’m deeply concerned about our present status and I am 
making every effort to improve it.” 

9. The NAEB believes that these indications of non-discrimi- 
natory operations are heartening, and demonstrate that the future is 
bright for the advancement of minority groups through all employment 
levels in the educational broadcast field. The NAEB is determined to 
encourage efforts in these areas, to provide greater employment oppor¬ 
tunities not only for Negroes but for women and for other disadvantaged 
racial, ethnic and religious groups as well. 

10. The NAEB also actively supports the Commission’s 
exhortation to all broadcasters to heed the call to conscience and to 
use their best efforts to contribute toward understanding and communi¬ 
cation by white and black, to offer opportunities to Negroes and other 
minority groups to participate in programming, and to provide programming 
which will serve specific needs of Negro and other minority audiences 


within the station’s service area. Educational stations in this 
country have made outstanding contributions in these programming 
areas, and the NAEB is proud to submit to the Commission for its 
consideration within the context of this proceeding the attached 
reports which have been prepared by the NAEB with respect to 
programming for the disadvantaged by educational radio and television 
stations. Included are eleven reports concerning educational 
television programming and activities, which commenced prior to 
the Commission’s decision herein, and which are planned as a 
continuing means by which all of its member stations may know what 
other stations are doing in these vital areas and may learn new 
v/ays of meeting the problems that are confronted in these areas on 
a local basis. Also included are seven reports concerning educational 
radio programming and activities. The NAEB is convinced that this 
informational service which it provides to its stations is one of 
the most important efforts that it can undertake to bridge the 
communications gap between station and station as well as between 
station and minority audience. The NAEB invites the Commission’s 
careful study of the wealth of programming ideas and services which 
educational radio and television stations are offering on a regular 
basis for their minority audiences. These programming efforts range 
from They Reach Out From East Harlem , Station WNDT, New York City, 
to TV Job Center . Station WETA, Washington, D.C., to Black on Black , 
Station WCNY, Syracuse, New York, to Operation ’Gap-Stop’ , concerning 
public housing problems, Station KRMA, Denver, Colorado, to Feedback 
for Advancement , a series aimed at ’’patterns of self-improvement” 
for Spanish-speaking audiences at Station KCET, Los Angeles, to the 
week-long program series, The Inner City , broadcast by Stations WMVS-TV, 

- 12 

Milwaukee, WHA-TV, Madison, and the 11-station Wisconsin educational 
FM network, to the 26-week sociological-variety series, Our People , 
Station WTTW, Chicago, to the African heritage series, Blacks, Blues, 
Black , Station KQED, San Francisco, California, to In Your Own Interest , 
a black-white discussion format series at Station WTVS, Detroit, to 
Black Horizons , an exploration of Negro life in Pittsburgh, Station 
WQED, Pittsburgh, to the black TV newspaper format, Say Brother , 

Station WGBII, Boston, Massachusetts, to the Community Related Television 
project at Station WYES-TV, New Orleans, Louisiana, to Black People- 
hood , written and produced by members of the Cleveland black community, 
Station WVIZ-TV, Cleveland, Ohio, to Dialogue in Black and White , 

Station WITF, Hershey, Pennsylvania, to Americans From Africa, A 
History , WCVE, Richmond, Virginia, to Dropouts Anonymous , Stations 
KFRE and KFRE-TV, Fresno, California, to Black Telethon , a phone-in 
discussion series, Station WMIIT, Schenectady, New York, to Periobico , 
a magazine-type series for Spanish-speaking audiences, Station KLRN, 
Austin-San Antonio, Texas, to The Drum , a 7-day-a-week nightly program 
aimed at minority audiences and including a telephone talk segment, 
Station WBUR, Boston, Massachusetts, to The Voice of Poverty , Station 
WAMU, Washington, D.C., to The Negro American series, Station WDTR-FM, 

11. The NAEB is well aware that past efforts and even present 
efforts in these programming areas are not enough. The problems of 
racial conflict and poverty and the ghetto demand close and continuing 
attention. The record to date in educational broadcasting, however, 
is excellent, and the NAEB desires to assure the Commission that this 
record of achievement will continue to expand in the future as educational 


stations are more and more able to find the money and the means 
to provide the programming that is more and more needed to meet 
the serious problems of discrimination that have prompted the 
Commission’s landmark policy statement on non-discriminatory 
practices by broadcast licensees. 

Respectfully submitted 


By /s/ Norman E. Jorgensen 

By /s/ Louis Schwarts _ 

By /s/ Robert A„ Woods 

1926 Eye Street, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20006 

October 9, 1968 

Its Attorneys 

r ajl 



National Educational Radio 

1346 Connecticut Avenue N.W. Washington D.C. 20036 Telephone 667-6000 

September 27, 1968 

Seventh Report, Radio Programs for the Disadvantaged 
Ken Clark, Project Director 

From a statement made to employees by Ohio Bell President 
Frederick R, Eckley: 

" <»»ooWe are moving away from the past with its out¬ 
worn philosophies and policieso We have set our sights 
on a goal that is criticized by some, but is morally 
right, that is sometimes hazy and indistinct but we 
believe attainable., 

The decision has been made and we have begun." 

* * * * * 

WDTR-FM, Detroit: Under a Title I grant this past summer, 
the Detroit Public School System, through WDTR, ran a radio workshop 
aimed at and designed for kids from Detroit's inner city, The 
response was good. Two groups of twenty students each spent six 
weeks learning radio from ground zero up. Technical training, 
program elements and administrative details were discussed and 
practiced by the two groups. Then Title I funds were expended. 

However, WDTR, dedicated and caring, decided to keep the 
workshop idea alive and invited all those who had not graduated 
to continue the experience. Again the response has been positive. 
The kids will continue and now begin the nitty-gritty job of 
wr iting, producing and directing on—air programming. 

No doubt some of the workshop students will get involved in 
WDTR's projected series of student interviews with black leaders 
of Detroit an idea that is scheduled for early Spring airing. 

. Perhaps one of the most useful projects the primarily in-school- 
oriented station has undertaken is a thirteen part series on 
black history-titled THE NEGRO AMERICAN. A brief explanation: In 
February of this year, an at large invitation was extended to all 
high school students in Detroit (twenty three schools) to attend 
a ° f lectur f s delivered by Professor Benjamin Quarles, 

noted black historian. The series was sponsored by the Social 

page two 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
September 27, 1968 

Studies Department of the Detroit Public Schools* About 500 
students attended (coming mainly from the city's inner city schools) 
Professor Quarles, on the faculty of History at Morgan State College 
Baltimore, has authored a number of books about the American Negro, 
including the text used by Detroit Schools, "The Negro in the 
Making of America*" 

Dr* Quarles hit home. The students wanted this and more* WDTR 
responded by asking Dr. Quarles to re-frame his lectures for a 
thirteen part, fifteen minute format* The series, beginning in 
Detroit this week, is now available to all NER member stations; 
WDTR’s small, but imaginative effort will find national use* 

The series: (topics in chronological order) 

"Why Study Negiro 'Hisotry?" 

"African Institutions and the African Slave Trade" 

"Slavery in the English North American Colonies" 

"The Negro in the American Revolution" 

"Slavery: Decline and Renewal" 

"The Life of the Slave, Part I" 

"The Life of the Slave, Part II" 

"The Abolitionist Crusade" (political abolitionists) 

"Literary Abolitionists, Other Anti-Slavery Forces, and 
the South's Reaction to Abolitionism" 

"New. Birth of Freedom - The Negro and the Civil War" 

"Reconstruction and the Negro" 

"The Downturn" 

"Turn of the Century Protest" (Washington vs* DuBois) 

"The Negro in the 20th Century" 

"The Contemporary Scene" 

NOTE: Not all of you have the facilities or available authorities 

to mount an historical series* THE NEGRO AMERICAN is recommended 
as an alternative* 

CONTACT: Miss Dorothy Patterson, Program Director 

page three 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
September 27, 1968 

WBOE-FM, Cleveland, representing the Cleveland Public Schools 
has tied into the movement in another way 0 Two lectures and two 
interviews have particular relevancy,. 

Under a grant from the Martha Holden Jennings Foundation and 
the Cleveland Board of Education, WBOE mounted a series titled 
"Visiting Scholars", an undertaking that brought outstanding 
American and European scholars in contact with Cleveland students„ 
Two such "visits" were conducted with black historian Dr. John 
Hope Franklin, Chairman of the American History Department at the 
University of Chicago,, His credentials are impressive: he 
formerly taught at Cambridge University, Fisk and Howard Univer¬ 
sities and Brooklyn College, and studied higher education in 
Nigeria on a U, S* State Department grant,, 

Part One of the Dr«, Franklin talk considered new interpretations 
of the Reconstruction Period in American history as they relate 
to the Negro; to consider his economic, political and educational 
problems in the 1865-1877 period. 

Part Two examined advances of black Americans in the 1920-1967 
P^^iod and considered many of the unsolved problems remaining 
today. Segregation and discrimination in housing, employment and 
education, and the Northern urban migration were highlights of the 

Both talks were broadcast to Cleveland schools on fourteen separate 
time segments, allowing for the widest possible listening audience., 

* * * * 

Next, WBOE pursued two interviews with Dr„ Samual D 0 Proctor 
former college president and currently President of the Institute 
for Services to Education where he is developing curriculums for 
use at fifteen Southern Negro colleges. Author of "The Young 
Negro in America, 1960 - 1980", Dr. Proctor was formerly Director 
for the Northeast Region for 0E0 and Director of the Peace Corps 
in Nigeria. 

The interviews analyzed current social and curriculum problems 
involved in the education of black Americans. 

The Franklin talks were available through NER last year; the 
Proctor interviews will be an NER offering in 1968-69. 

CONTACT: Cecilia Evans, Senior High Radio Coordinator 

Cleveland Public Schools 

^page four 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
September 27, 1968 

WBGO-FM, Newark, makes a continuing commitment to black Amer¬ 
icans „ The school population of Newark Schools is well over 70% 
black, As a.result, WBGO has black people in mind no matter what 
its programming is. Some of the most interesting work done recently 
is reported here, 

lo WHAT IS AHEAD FOR NEWARK? was a series of interviews con¬ 
ducted between.high school students and municipal and state auth¬ 
orities on topics relating to the sensitive issues in everyone's 
mind since the summer riots of 1967, Free to ask any question, 
the students levelled with the officials in frank and revealing 
sessionso As a result of this series, another was suggested by a 
black student who asked for a forum between students and police 

2o THE POLICE, THE PEOPLE, THE PROBLEMS stood as another pene¬ 
trating dialogue between students and adults, WBGO reports one 
student, unjustly treated by police, having his complete "say" to 
the police on the series; the police were open-minded and co-operative, 

3° JACKIE ROBINSON INTERVIEW was just what the name implies * 

High school students asked the hard questions about their lives of 
one man who has "made it," A one time only, live program, the 
interview was held on the stage of a Newark high school auditorium 
and was SRO, Robinson not only provided an articulate and inspired 
expertise for the program, but lingered long after the broadcast 
and continued to tell it straight to the kids* 

D D0C 5' 0 ^ JACQUELINE BEYER, an expert on African Affairs and 

Acr? SrS V nlversit Y was interviewed in depth on WBGO's 
FOCUS. AFRO-ASIA series. A highlight of the program was the 
questions put to Dr. Beyer by members of the Afro-American Culture 
Club from one Newark high school, 

. 5o ^ A LES FROM THE TALK-TALK HUT is a dramatized series on 
African Folklore now in production. Designed to meet the need for 

wffb Y ^°i° gY M v ? back 9 r °und, for a feeling of identification 
with history asked for by the disadvantaged youngsters, the series 
is a good take-off point for blacks and whites at the start of the 
education process. For the very young, 

Pro T b T f b i Y i- 0ne ° f the most effective, and dramatically movinq 
challenges WBGO has come up with is SPEAKOUT, Started two years 9 ’ 
* 11 * th ^Juries continues to be broadcast today because of obvious 
need. This is how it works, A WBGO staff writer constructs vig¬ 
nettes one or two minutes long dramatizing the personal problem of 
some student. The problems are selected by a city-wide committee 
such as "Being Ashamed of One's Home," "Always Moving," "Stealing," 

page five 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
September 27, 1968 

''Cheating in School" etc. After each dramatization, the subject 
is rounded out by a group of 11 - 12 year old youngsters under 
the sensitive questioning of a child guidance expert., All partici¬ 
pants are black, 

WBGO, under the Newark Board of Education, obviously works 
first for in-school services, However, the content of its pro¬ 
gramming for the disadvantaged clearly hits a large, broadly 
structured broadcast audience as welh 

CONTACT: Marie Co Scanlon, Supervisor of Radio and Television 

* * * * 

The enclosed article, taken from The . Center Magazine discusses a 
recent conference held at the Center for the Study of Democratic 
Institutions, Santa Barbara, California« The conference considered 
the many faces of ethnic radio stations (primarily black) and 
their relationship to solving minority peoples’ problems. Not 
enough is being done by these commercial stations; the lack of 
involvement may also have some relevancy to some public radio 
stations in America, 

R'C IgjlL 

September 27, 1968 

Mr. Nelson Price 

Television, Radio and Film Commission 
The Methodist Church 
Room 420 

475 Riverside Drive 
New York, New York 10027 

Dear Nelson; 

You have not indicated your availability (or Ben Logan’s 
in your absence) for the NER panel regarding radio program¬ 
ming for the disadvantaged about which I wrote earlier. 

I’m proceeding on the assumption that you will participate. 

We are anxious to originate ’’Night Call” from the 
Sheraton Park on Thursday, November 21 at 11;30 p.m. I’m 
advised that there will be no union problem, that approp¬ 
riate space can be provided (when you decide what you need), 
that 80% or more of the rooms in the Sheraton Park can 
receive WAMU-FM, that we will give you the fcest possible 
promotion but that all expenses of production will be borne 

Possible guests for the program (all of whom are tentatively 
scheduled for a Friday morning appearance on a panel) 

Jesse Jackson, SCLS 
Greg Morris, actor 
Nathan Wright, author 
Dr. William Grier, author 

Julian Bond has been contacted but is a doubtful starter 
at this time. 

If you are still favorably inclined toward originating 
the program from our convention, I would urge you to init¬ 
iate planning. We have reviewed the situation carefully — 
see no barriers — and think that it might be a mutually 
profitable effort. We would give n Night Call” the approp¬ 
riate promotion. NAEB/NER would benefit by the visibility 
we would attain through the broadcast. Shall we proceed 
on the assumption that this will develop? 

I’ve been unable to develop any precise information re¬ 
garding ratemaking for educational broadcasting. The 

September 27, 1968 

matter has been touched upon in our meetings and some 
activity is underway. Generally, this relates to tele¬ 
vision. I assume that if any rate making occurs it will be 
applicable to both media but have no assurances. 

As I understand it, AT&T is foot dragging, though I do 
not have a clear picture as yet. Indications are that 
the commission will ask for comments at some future time. 

If this develops, we will advise NER affiliates and we 1 11 
get off a note to you. 

Summing up: Information regarding radio is not generally 
available. It is assumed that TV and radio are tied together. 
The matter is currently under study. 


Robert A. Mott 


Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions 


Box 4068, Santa Barbara, California 93103 

September 24, 1968 

Dear Kenneth Clark, 

We are happy to give you permission 
to reprint "A Center Report/A Failure to Com¬ 
municate," at no charge. We ask only that 
proper credit be given to the Center, and a 
copy of the reproduction be sent to us. 

Yours very truly. 

Hallock Hoffman 1 

HH: jp 

CC: Mr. Edward Reed 

Mr. Kenneth Clark 
National Association of 
Educational Broadcasting 
1346 Connecticut Avenue, N. W. 
Washington, D. C. 20036 

New York office: 

136 East 57 Street 
New York, N.Y. 10022 
(212) 753-1340 


1126 Sixteenth Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 202/ 659-9740 

September 13, 1968 


William G. Harley, President 
National Association of Educational 
1346 Connecticut Avenue 
Washington, D.C. 20036 


Dear Bill: 

Although we've already spoken of the matter, I want 
to take this opportunity to put on paper my feelings about the 
importance of the Programs for the Disadvantaged project which 
Ken Clark has so ably handled. 

Each week, when I get Ken's radio and television re¬ 
ports, I am pleased again at how much programming for the rural 
and urban poor educational broadcasters have developed. It makes 
me proud to be a part of the field. 

The important and necessary service which the project 
provides, however, is not merely to document that we are doing a 
better job of discharging our public responsibilities than we might 
have suspected. A great deal of what is going on has been developed 
at the grass roots level. (If Commissioners Johnson and Cox had 
found that kind of local programming in Oklahoma their reactions 
might have been different.) It's vital that all educational broad¬ 
casters find out what their colleagues are really doing, not only 
because that can make possible the exchange of good programs, but 
because it provides the challenge and inspiration for other broad¬ 
casters - commercial as well as noncommercial - to do likewise. 

Many of educational broadcasting's critics claim that 
we are more "educated" than "educational," only programming for 
other "egg heads." Ken's work gives them the lie, and inspires 
us all to serve minorities other than the one we happen to belong 

Mr. William G. Harley 
September 13, 1968 


I hope that it will be possible, not only to continue 
this important work, but to expand it. It's my belief that this 
is one of the most vital, necessary, and exciting projects in 
which the NAEB has ever been engaged. 




Frank W. Norwood 
Executive Secretary 

v 'gy 


A division of 



September 13, 1968 

Tenth Report on Programming for the Disadvantaged 
Ken Clark, Project Director 

From a statement made to employees by Ohio Bell President Frederick 
R. Eckley: 

. . .We are moving away from the past with its outworn 
philosophies and policies. We have set our sights on a 
goal that is criticized by some, but is morally right 
that is sometimes hazy and indistinct but we believe 

The decision has been made and we have begun. " 

sjc sjc * * * 

KVIE. Sacramento: The station has filmed a half-hour study of a Maidu 
Indian who lives in a wilderness area of Plumas County, California. The program 
is not. intended to reflect the Indian as a "disadvantaged" person. However, the 
American Indians are a minority group almost wholly disregarded by broad¬ 
casting. This program, BRYAN BEAVERS: A MOVING PORTRAIT, offers a 
quiet, low key study of a man adjusting to life without fanfare - a man who is 
a combination of two cultures and who has found values in both. 

Bryan Beavers is a remnant of one of 21 distinct linguistic tribal groups 
that once populated the territory that is now California. He lives in a log cabin 
which he built on land long occupied by his ancestors. 

BRYAN BEAVERS: A MOVING PORTRAIT is a view of life in progress 
with neither beginning nor end, a concept which is not only artistically valid 
for television, but perhaps closer to truth and basic realities - so say the KVIE 
producers of the program. They go on: 

"The program approaches television cinematography from 
the standpoint that all things are capable of importance to 
all people, and that it is the artist's role to reveal this 
importance. Thus, it is possible to discover universal 
values within the simplicity of regionalism and to reveal 
a simple subject or movement as important with no need for 
justification other than its own existence. " 

- 2 - 

Amidst all the shouting and slogans and signs, BRYAN BEAVERS: A 
MOVING PORTRAIT presents a hushed statement on human relations worth 

CONTACT: John C. Crabbe, General Manager 

* * * * * 

WMHT, Schenectady has been wailing strong for five months on the 
Monday evening show: BLACK TELECON, the station's phone-in discussion 

Monday nights are turned over to Mrs. Audrey Harvey, the black, 
bright hostess who translates her activities with the Schenectady Community 
Action Program to a lively television arena. Her primary aim is to help the 
poor and to air the ideas and feelings of many on both sides of the poverty line. 
She usually chooses panel guests who know poverty from first hand experience. 
Her guests aren’t always Black, but those who are White inevitably turn out to 
share common problems with the Blacks. 

Mrs. Harvey has a no-nonsense approach and cuts through to the very 
soul of an issue efficiently and with perception. After igniting her panel and 
setting the general discussion in motion, telephone calls are encouraged. In 
the five months Mrs. Harvey has handled the program she has entertained 
thousands of questions and opinions. 

Many of the programs have rich currency in that the topics are wrenched 
out of the living history of our times. The Poor People's March, Racism in 
the State Legislature, Education and the Negro and a crisis in the local Head¬ 
start program represent what Mrs. Harvey calls "Now!" problems. 

Other subjects treated have a less timely, though no less important 
approach. For example: the Negro middle class, the Human Rights Com¬ 
mission, Negro History - and some of those lined up for the immediate future - 
the Negro church in society. What Negroes Call Themselves and Why, The 
Negro and the Peace Movement. 

BLACK TELECON tries to reach both Black and White communities, to 
establish some rapport between the two, to bridge the gorge of misunderstanding. 
Mrs. Harvey hopes are basic - that the programs will stimulate people to do 
something about the problems. 

Viewer response has been highly pro, as well it should be for a series 
of programs that is imaginative, provocative, very tuned in. 

Donald E. Schein, General Manager of WMHT explains why his station 
got involved in the BLACK TELECON undertaking. 


"We need to communicate with the black community 
every bit as much as they need to have a means of 
communicating with us - and we need an emotional 
awareness of their problems before we can begin to do 
the things that must be done. 

We might not like what they say. We might not under¬ 
stand their frustrations. But we need to listen. " 

CONTACT: Don Schein, General Manager 

* * * * * 

Auburn Television, over the Alabama Educational Network is readying 
its initial programming for the rural disadvantaged for early 1969 airing. 

Tentatively titled "KATIE'S HOUSE, the twice weekly, quarter hour 
programs will try to "reach the unreached", the rural homemakers who fall 
into a lower socio-economic-educational level - women who have not been so 
far exposed to TV teaching that is designed expressly for their capabilities. 

The series is being produced by Auburn staff Producer-Director John 
Brockway. The "Katie" of the program will keep the approach to basic, 
elementary information breezy and informal. 

Dudley Williams, Program Director, states the following objectives for 
the series: 

1. To help young homemakers improve the health of their families. 

2. To aid the viewers in becoming more intelligent consumers. 

3. To assist in understanding the community and its resources and 
thus to be better equipped to participate in social action processes. 

4. To urge the homemakers to develop respect for themselves and 
their homemaking roles. 

The series, produced by Auburn Television in cooperation with the 
Auburn and Federal Extension Services, is conceived as an experiment. The 
Extension Services will mail companion pieces of informative literature to 
the housewives that will complement their viewing on particular subjects. 

Ten pilot counties representing a cross section of Alabama rural living, will 
participate in a on-going study to evaluate the effectiveness of the series, con¬ 
sidering publications, methodology and equipment. 


Auburn Television hopes the series can become a year round affair; 
the need is obvious. But to do the series on a continuing basis will take 
resources not available beyond the initial thirty programs. 

Each program will be aired twice, now scheduled for 2:45 and 5:00 PM. 
KATIE'S HOUSE will be seen five days each week. 

How to manage money, how to fix food for more nutrition, how to do 
simple dressmaking or home decorating - these are only a few of the topics 
the series will treat. KATIE'S HOUSE is being set up to be much more than 
a "how-to-do-it" kind of thing, however. The series will spark a philosophic 
approach to rural homemakers that urges them to believe in themselves, to 
believe that they can do better with what they already have with a little work 
and imagination. 

It is too soon to editorialize, but KATIE'S HOUSE just may turn out to 
be a prototype other stations may find attractive. If the "easy does it" approach 
to igniting enthusiasm and implementation can work for homemakers, how about 
a series for children, or for the elderly, or for men. The more you think about 
it, the more infinite become the possibilities. 

CONTACT: Ed Wegener, Director, Auburn University Production Center 

* * * % * 

KUHT, Houston is prepping for a November 4th debut on its blockbuster 
for low-income residents of the city titled THE WAY IT IS. 

Executive Producer of the twelve part series, James Bauer reports 
that the material will be divided into two distinct approaches. Nine one-half 
hour documentaries are being made. Those will be complimented by three two 
hour live programs. 

The series squares off to take a hard look at what the "little guy" faces 
when he comes up against the facts of life in Houston - the facts about housing, 
shopping, loans etc. In many cases the picture isn't very pretty and it seems 
that the poorer one is, the less chance one has of ever getting off the treadmill. 
Who are these little guys? They are Mexican-Americans; they are Blacks; they 
are poor Whites. And they haven't had anyone in their lonely corner to date with 
the gumption Of KUHT. Maybe things can change now. 

The programs will run on Mondays and Wednesdays over a six-weeks 
period, with repeats of everything on the following Sundays. 

The documentaries, shot in the disadvantaged neighborhoods of Austin 
are set to cover the following topics: Food Purchasing, Furniture and Appliance 


Buying, Auto Purchase, Home Remodeling, Home Buying, Appliance Rental, * 
Clothing Purchasing and Credit and Loans. 

Two co-hosts will move in and out of all programs in the role of reporters. 
One, a Black is Jacqueline Toilet; her White male counterpart is Kent Demeret. 

The filmed documentaries are being handled by Crown Films, a creative 
arm of predominantly Black Texas Southern University. Another Black, Ben 
Waddell is contributing research talents to the programs. 

The three two-hour live programs present a producer's nightmare and 
we can only wish Jim Bauer and KUHT well in the undertaking. What the station 
plans is possibly the most ambitious live TV venture ever attempted in Houston. 
With an eminent panel in the studio, three mobile units will fan out through the 
city to three different disadvantaged neighborhoods for the live pickups of inter¬ 
views with the people whose story THE WAY IT IS will tell. 

More specifics? Well, the loan program, for example, will present the 
problem of many people, not knowing better, letting themselves fall into the 
clutches of loan sharks and having enormous financial, not to mention psychological 
problems in disengaging themselves from their debts. THE WAY IT IS will talk 
to these people, will hear their stories of how they have been harassed by loan 
companies. The program will discuss in detail the two kinds of loan companies 
operating in Houston (we're not talking about banks who are traditionally loathe 
to make small loans in that city anyway). Rate fixing will be a part of the topic. 
Caution signs will be waved to show the loan applicant what to watch for - how 
to read a contract etc. Finally, there will be full explanation of what a Com¬ 
munity Credit Union is-what its makeup is - and what it can do to help solve the 
little guy's money woes - legally, honestly and at a very low rate of interest. 

KUHT is working with the Harris County Economic Opportunity office to 
reach into the ghettos for authenticated information. The liaison has worked 
well so far. 

On promotion, all persons interviewed are automatically photographed - 
those prints to be used on posters soon to cover the city. It is also planned to 
use other media to promote the series, one of the most interesting outlets being 
black radio in Houston: KVOK and KIKK. 

KUHT has tied onto a tiger with this one. The abysses are already evident; 
but the station is determined to light candles, to illumine those parts of the city 
where knowledge, even elementary knowledge, rarely shines. 

CONTACT: Roy Barthold, Station Manager 

* Tentatively scheduled 

- 6 - 

KLRN, Austin-San Antonio debuts this week with PERIOBICO, a onfe- 
half hour, thirty nine segment series oriented to the very large Spanish-speaking 
population of that area (over 300, 000 in the San Antonio "barrio" alone). 

KLRN has wanted to tackle this important group of citizens, unique in 
their traditions and attitudes and needs, for some time. A recent Ford Foundation 
grant made the attempt possible in terms of doing the job right. 

A search was mounted, without SUcCess, to find a Mexican-American 
producer to head up PERIOBICA. However, an all Mexican-American crew has 
been assembled lead by Gil Murillo, Associate Producer and Director Rolando 
Morales. Mr. Morales brings a strong history of experience in Mexican tele¬ 
vision to. the job. It is of interest to' note that all crew members live in the San 
Antonio barrio themselves; they will be telling the story Of their own people in 
that sense; : L 

"Periobico" means "magazine, " or "newspaper, " or "current events. " 
That's exactly the 1 name of the game. A combination of discussion, music, inter¬ 
views, and a great deal of film footage shot on location in the barrio is intended. 

A number of distinguished Mexican-American citizens will take part in 
the series, highlighting their, particular areas of expertese: Education, Poverty, 
Housing etc. In addition, all talent will be Mexican-American, some already 
well known in the area. One man in particular is a familiar figure to the barrio 
having built a reputation as a D. J. on a local commercial station and as an active 
participant in community youth work. 

KLRN is pioneering an especially exciting concept in its language approach 
to the series. Within the barrio the language changes with the subject at hand. 
About 70% of ordinary conversation is in Spanish, but when the talk turns to 
television, schooling etc, the transition is automatically made to English. So it 
will be on PERIOBICO. The language will not be directed; rather, it will flow 
from Spanish to English to Spanish as the topics and the speakers wish. 

PERIOBICO is for, by and about Mexican-Americans. It is their "voice. " 

It is their opportunity to publically address each 6ther on current problems 
affecting their daily lives. KLRN earns our applause for this effort. It will set 
a standard and open a door that has been too long shut. 

KLRN also reports that Charles Akins, Dean of Men at local Johnston 
£Jigh School is getting very favorable reactions to his daily sports reporting on 
the station's hard news program. Mr. Akins is black. Harvey Herbst, Station 
Manager, offers the constructive thought that it isn't always necessary to find 
a black broadcaster to do the job; it may be more relevant to find the man and 
train him. The education field is rich with black men and women who are knowl¬ 
edgeable, articulate and imaginative. Those of you who report difficulty in 



finding appropriate candidates for job openings might consider the success of 

CONTACT: Harvey Herbst, Station Manager 

>J< >Jc s!< sjc 


External sources for programming. (Promised this week, but not 
delivered due to incomplete research. ) 

* * $ $ * 


Enclosed are three pieces of material describing a new Federal 
program to encourage greater parental participation in the education 
of their youngsters. Several possible TV projects should occur to 
you immediately. 

National Educational Radio 


1346 Connecticut Avenue N.W. Washington D.C. 20036 Telephone 667-6000 


September 10, 1968 

Sixth Report, Programs for the Disadvantaged 
Ken Clark, Project Director 

Robert Conot, Author of the Watts riot report. Rivers of Blood, 

Years of Darkness , quoted a Watts resident as saying. 

All we wants is that we get our story told and get it 
told rightI What we do last night, maybe it wasn T t 
right. But ain T t nobody come down here and listen to 
us before. 

And from the Kerner Commission Report: 

T, Far too often, the press acts and talks about Negroes 
as if Negroes do not read the newspapers or watch tele¬ 
vision, give birth, die and go to P.-T.-A. meetings. n 

FCC Commissioner Nicholas Johnson recently used these two quotations 
in a speech to the Annual Convention of the National Association of Tele¬ 
vision and Radio Announcers in Miami. Commissioner Johnson continued: 

"The white media are beginning to get the message. Edu¬ 
cational radio stations ... are producing shows like 
WAMU T s "Voices of Poverty". Are you? Do you go down 
and listen? 

It is tragic irony, I think, that many radio and tele¬ 
vision stations choose to do their local public service 
the way any other business — like an electric utility — 
might. They stage picnics, and parades, and work for the 
United Fund and Red Cross. They referee basketball games. 

They send boys to camp and set up scholarship funds. 

Certainly such efforts are not to be ridiculed. But 
the greatest local service that can be rendered by some¬ 
one in the broadcasting business is the broadcasting 

The White Establishment is uptight. That isn T t going to change 
until permanent answers are found to the predicament we have helped 
create. As educational broadcasters we have the power to motivate, 
and move our audiences into a more positive arena of thought and action. 
It T s our time. It T s our move. 



I want to report on a project called DROPOUTS ANONYMOUS dreamed up 
and implemented by commercial stations KFRE and KFRE-TV in Fresno, Cal. 

The idea is as valid for you as it is for them. 

Concerned about the high dropout rate in their area, the stations 
launched a campaign in February, 1966. The initial project lasted one 
full year, proved itself, and is continuing indefinitely - as long as 
the need exists. It was so successfull, all other broadcasting stations 
in the city willingly cooperated. 

Allow me to quote from the forward to a brochure prepared by the 
stations which best explains the purpose: 

DROPOUTS ANONYMOUS is a continuing campaign, in announcement 
form, offering aid and moral support to high school students 
about to drop out and to older youths and even adults who 
never completed high school. 

It brings the potential dropout together with one who has 
already faced - and solved - a similar problem. 

DROPOUTS ANONYMOUS will elicit response of a depth and 
intensity that is hard to predict. Late at night, the 
fourteen-year-old who is pregnant and terrified, the 
handicapped enrolled in courses he can T t handle, the 
n A" student whose uneducated parents want her to quit 
school and bring home her weekly paycheck, the listless, 
the forgotten, the lonely, to whom the invitation to call 
DROPOUTS ANONYMOUS is a beacon of light, a ray of hope, 
a sign that there is someone who will listen and help.” 

An organizing committee was formed under the Fresno Community Council 
representing schools, hospitals. Armed Forces recruiting offices, fra¬ 
ternal and civic clubs and community service organizations. 

That group in turn was and is supported by a much larger number 
of people on standby call. Some of these volunteers man telephones 
on regular shifts. Many are simply available for referral calls. 

These volunteers were deliberately chosen for their religious, 
racial, ethnic, economic and educational backgrounds. VJhen the "key 
receptionist" decides that a particular committee member could com¬ 
municate more effectively, that volunteer is asked to make the contact. 

The KFRE - KFRE-TV role was one of initiating the project and of 
providing the publicity to keep it moving. Once started, the program 
was turned over to local citizens 7 groups to administer. But the broad¬ 
cast facilities remain an integral element of the project through an¬ 
nouncements and attendant publicity. 

The major appeal is to listeners and viewers who are contemplating 
dropping out of school or who have already left school. The suggestion 


is repeatedly aired that they telephone for assistance "now” to a number 
which is in service 24 hours each day. 

The answering service has a roster of nine outstanding civic leaders 
especially trained to counsel in this area of social problems. The 
answering service is given the personal schedule and availability of 
each of the nine leaders every day. More than one is easily reachable 
at any given moment. 

Each counselor is asked first to determine the motivation causing 
the problem of the telephone caller - family maladjustment, need for a 
job, military service and so on. The counselor then encourages the 
caller to get in touch with the appropriate social agency, referring to 
a specific person and offering to set up an exact appointment time. 

Literally hundreds of people in the Fresno area have called DROP¬ 
OUTS ANONYMOUS for help. The project has had such great success, the 
two stations will continue and no end date is in sight at the moment. 

A detailed brochure which explains the entire DROPOUTS ANONYMOUS 
project with specific details and how you can start and implement such 
a program in your own area at your own station is available free of 
charge. I highly recommend that you write for it to: Guy Farnsworth, 
Community Relations Director, KFRE-TV, P. 0. Box 144, Fresno, California, 
telephone 209-268-6441. 

A similar technical facility has been made available since July of 
this year whereby anyone can call a number in 24 hours service and be 
directed to a trained person, knowledgeable about drugs, their abuse, 
their use and where to get help. As a public service, this "drug-call- 
in” idea is catching on in the KFRE, KFRE-TV coverage area. Most of 
those receiving calls are adults, but the list also includes some young 
people who have gone the n route” with drugs themselves and can answer .the 
phone with personal knowledge of the problem. 

Both Dropout and Drug ideas appeal to other kinds of disadvantaged 
persons than those these reports have ordinarily treated. But both pro¬ 
jects are front line action programs performing useful services to their 
communities - services that could be duplicated in your station. 


KSLH, St. Louis, heavily orients its efforts in human relations 
toward in-school services. Believing that habits and beliefs formed 
early in life tend to stick, the station is doing what it can to offer 
positive, useful information for elementary school children. Anyone 
is invited to listen and many St. Louis listeners at home do just that, 
but the main thrust is for in-school student ears. 

"Project U” is going into its fourth year of programs (fifteen 
minutes each week). Designed by a committee of teachers in one of St. 
Louis T six school districts (a disadvantaged one), the series attempts 
to teach the children basic awareness of their life. Approximately one- 
third of the series is produced for the primary grades; one-third for 

- 4 - 

the 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students and one-third for 7th and 8th graders. 
KSLK reports many classes tune into the entire series, however, finding 
something of value in every program. The topics are elementary and re¬ 
volve around such things as: (1) family activities; (2) the importance 
of school attendance; (3) playground behaviour; (4) courtesy; (5) sports¬ 
manship; (6) beautification of your own backyard (a grass-growing pro¬ 
ject last year had the kids sprouting greenery all over the district); 
and (8) responsibility to self and to others. 

"Project U” is directed to the problems the Districts teachers 
(mostly Black) themselves find in their daily work. Two staff writers, 
one Black, one White help the teachers prepare the weekly scripts. 

"Mr. Achiever" is another fifteen minute, weekly series for in¬ 
school listening. Again written by teachers of one particular district 
in St. Louis, the programs emphasize good study habits and the notion 
that achieving with ones 1 self early in life, transposing that "achieve- 
ability" to external activities as well as to school can tend to make 
a young person achievement-prone for the rest of his life. 

CONTACT: Gertrude H. Hoffsten, General Manager 

* * * * * 

WBAA, Lafayette (Purdue University), reports again with a new series 
of discussions stressing the whole spectrum of human relations in the 
Lafayette-West Lafayette area. 

There was considerable foot-dragging in civic circles over the 
appointment of a Human Relations Council to consider problems basic to 
both communities. However, a great many people, both Black and White, 
felt there had to be some kind of coordinating group to understand the 
problems before sensible solutions could be attempted. Accordingly, 
public pressure began to mount (joined by WBAA management). Before a 
petition could be presented, the point was abundantly made and the 
Establishment appointed a Human Relations Commission. 

WBAA will investigate this Commission and its work. For example, 
the first several programs in the talk series will deal with these 
kinds of questions: 

1. What problems exist in the Greater Lafayette community 
between Blacks and Whites? 

2. What can a Human Relations Commission do to help the 
disadvantaged in the Greater Lafayette area? 

3. Do you think the selection of members for the Human 
Relations Commission was fair? 

If all that doesn T t stir up some interest, WBAA T s plans to be 
present to record both city council meetings at which the Human Relations 
Commissions will be named and approved by the city councils will, if 
nothing else, continue the dialogue. And continue the dialogue, we must. 


Some people say there has been enough talk; it is time for action. WBAA*s 
approach suggests actions, preceded by thoughful deliberations and prepa¬ 
rations is a sounder approach. 

CONTACT: Jane Root, General Manager 

* * * * * 

WLIB, Harlem, is a commercial station. We report it here because of 
a very special series titled WHAT MUST BE DONE now being offered by the 
NER Program Service in the October-December quarter. 

This most unusual series of thirteen half-hour programs was produced 
in cooperation with NEWSWEEK Magazine and was inspired by the award¬ 
winning issue of that publication titled "The Negro in America: What 
Must Be Done." 

Sam Chase, Vice President of WLIB, Harlem Radio Center, created 
and produced the series in an effort to show listeners what they can do 
as individual, private citizens. WHAT MUST BE DONE suggests there is 
a great deal of action and considerable options open to the individual 
with a willingness to try. 

The Host-Moderator for the series is Manhattan Borough President 
Percy Sutton. Each program is kicked off at the top by NEWSWEEK Editor 
Osborn Elliott who relates the researched facts of the particular problem 
to be discussed. 

An eminent panel of distinguished Blacks and Whites, representing 
both Militant and Moderate points of view, discuss the problem, offer 
solutions, define roadblocks to those solutions, and then explain how 
listeners can help break down the barriers. 

WLIB, when first airing the programs, followed each with a phone- 
in. Enormous listener participation was achieved as WLIB phones "rang 
off the wall". The public clearly felt personal involvement in the 
series, wanted to do something, and in many cases had clear cut sug¬ 
gestions to offer. 

So far, 250 other stations have carried the series, many of them also 
utilizing the phone-in follow-up. 

The panel list and topics are included in Enclosure #1. 

For any station interested in top flight discussions of the most 
critical domestic issue of this decade, consider WHAT MUST BE DONE. 

CONTACT: Robert Underwood, Manager, NERN, 119 Gregory Hall, 

Urbana, Illinois 61803 



To explain Enclosure #2: a community action group. The Community 
Relations Council of New Orleans, issued the "Do-It-Yourself Kit" through 
IJYES, New Orleans. The specific references are localized, of course, 
but the "kit" is enclosed for your consideration as an idea that might 
find adaptability to your own community. 


Enclosure #3 is the brochure prepared by WAMU-FM to promote its 
special series THE VOICES OF POVERTY; it is an excellent example of 
creative imagination at work on that "extra" step that adds so much 
to a total package presentation. 

* * * * * 

NEXT WEEK: A look at external program sources, NERN in particular. 

September 11, 1968 

Mr. Everett C. Parker 
Office of Communication 
United Church of Christ 
289 Park Avenue South 
New York, N. Yo 10010 

Dear Mr. barkeri 

The National Association of Educational Broadcasters will 
file a comment during the proposed rule-making against 
discrimination in broadcast employment. 

As you may know, we have a committee of the Association on 
Employment Practices which has been extremely active this 
past summer in gathering data on educational broadcasting 
stations' performance record in reference to employing 
minority groups and formulating recommendations for what 
should be done to foster greater participation of such 
people in our field via special recruitment and training 
programs. We plan to publish a station handbook for 
social action which will provide guidelines to stations, 
both commercial and non-commercial, about how they can 
improve their activities in programming and employment with 
reference to members of racial minorities. 

Sincerely yours. 

WGH s1m 

William G. Harley 


cc: Ken Clark 

Jim Fellows 
Chuck Marquis 





September 10, 1968 




Mr. Ken Clark 
Project Director 
National Educational Radio 
13^6 Connecticut Avenue N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20036 

Dear Mr. Clark: 

W hen i returned from my long summer vacation , I found your reports about Radio 
Prog rams for the Disadvantaged on my desk. I read these reports with ext reme 


1. WHAT IS AHEAD FOR NEWARK? This was a series of radio interviews, in 


There were no holds barred. 'After the radio broadcasts, in each case, the 


acted upon the suggestion and were able to present: 

2. The series, THE POLICE, THE PEOPLE, THE PR08LEMS. The same penetrating 


3. JACKIE ROBINSON INTERVIEW. I T took some, sot we succeeded in 
bringing Jackie Robinson to our microphones which we placed on the stage of the 


audience. This project was really an inspirer. Again, our guest answered ques¬ 
tions PUT to him by high school students. The program attracted a large repre¬ 
sentation of municipal authorities who joined us on the stage. After the broad¬ 
cast, Jackie Robinson — who had protested that he must dash off immediately_ 


4. DOCTOR JAuQUELINE BEYER, expert on African affairs and professor at 
Rutger3 University, filled in an interview spot in a previously taped series 
calleo FOCUS: AFRO-ASIS. An interesting aspect of this was her questioning by 
members of the Afro-American Culture Club in one of our high schools. The pro¬ 






September 6, 1968 

Mr. Ken Clark 

13^+6 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20036 

Dear Ken: 

Just a brief note to let you know what a pleasure it 
was meeting and talking with you last week in your 
office and at lunch. 

As you know, I had the pleasure of attending t he 

National B1ack Power Conference in Philadelphia._I 

must re port that I found a great deal of acceptance 

on exploring the utilization of public br oadcasting. 

Hopefully, the job you are doing and the break- 

thr ough s t h at are coming up wi11 contin ue so as to 

m ake public broadcasting r eal1y rele va nt to a ll of 

our needs. 

I wish also to again offer my help in any way in 
relationship to the up-coming NAEB Convention and, 
in particular, the Urban Area Section. Realizing 
that you are leaving before the Convention, I am 
wondering who will be responsible for this vital 
area after you leave and, also, if you will offer 
my assistance to whoever it might be. 

Again, it was a pleasure, and I do wish you the best 
of luck in your future endeavors. 

Executive Pro* 
Urban Affairs 




60 ^ 227'-6000 

SEWELL, R. D. 4, N. J. 08080 

September 6, 1968 

1201 16th Street N.W. ^ 

Washington, D.C. 

Dear Sir: 

For the.first time there will be an Educational Radio and 
Television;oh 'the Island Nation of Cyprus. This will be a great 
advancement for the cause of education since Cyprus has so many 
remote villages cutboff from the main stream of life, limited 
access to books, and no university whatsoever. 

My brother-in-law has been given the job of organizing, 
programming, and producing this pioneer project. Up until now 
he has been an elementary school principal. He has written me 
as to where he can turn for information since he has no access to 
resources of any kind. If you can provide any information on 
any aspect of educational television, it would be greatly 

You may send the information to me and I will forward it 
to Cyprus, or you may write directly to him: 

Mr. Theoklis Kougialis 
Makhrou f(3rd) 31 
Engomi/ Nicosia 


Thank you very much 

Sincerely yours 

(Mrs.) Esther Pavlides, 
Speech Therapist 

WHAT CAN I DO? - Public Service Announcement #2 







I have several neighbors who agree with our ideas on 

what needs to be done in our area, but they’ve never 


even registered to vote. I’ve heard this is a problem 
throughout our ward and I know something should be 
done about it, but I’m only one person. What can I do? 

What can I do? What can I do? 



You're in the best position to take action. We’ve found 
that one excellent way to increase registration is for 

well-informed voters to accompany their neighbors down 


to City Hall to register. 


Good morning. I’m Ellen Smithson. This is Joan Linker. 
She lives in the 37th precinct and would like to 

register to vote. 

Okay. Has she completed Form 27^ on resident requirement 


No, I don't think she'll need that. She's not a new 
resident and has her birth certificate and rent 
receipts to show residence. 



You’ve probably asked*: "What can one person do?" This 
is one answer: help register voters. 

WHAT CAN I DO? - Public Service Announcement $1 







Sure, I'm for racial equality, and good employment for 

Negroes, but I'm not an employer. I'm only one person. 

What can I do? 



What can I do? What can I do? > 






Look, you can do plenty. You're a consumer. You represent 

economic power to the people you do business with. Have 

you let them know how you feel? 


No, I guess I haven't. 




Mr. Williams, I've been buying here every week for several 

years now and I've got a question. Why do you have so few 

Negro employees and why are they only in the lowest jobs? 


Well now, Mrs. Jackson, I'm sure you can understand my 


problem. I know what you're talking about, and that's 

going to come, but I wouldn't want any of my customers 

to think we were rushing things here. 


Well, I*m one of your customers, and I think you're 

delaying things. You’ve got some employee turn-over 

and I think it’s high time you start hiring qualified 

Negroes and training, too, if necessary. 


You've probably asked: "What can one person do?" This 

is one answer: encourage equal employment opportunities 


Public Service Announcement #3 









I know that most of the people in the area where I live 
don’t want any trouble and wouldn’t think of starting 
any. But some wild stories get started that get people 
riled up and they sweep through the whole neighborhood 
in minutes. I know most of ’em probably aren’t tirue, 
but I’m only one person. What can I do? 


What can I do? What can I do? 


Man, that's how a lot of the trouble starts. From 
rumors and people gettin’ all shook up about things that 
never happened. Next time you hear one of them wild 
stories try and check it out. I'll bet you find they’s 
nothin' to it. Then all you gotta do is convince people 
to cool it. 


Hey, man, you heard all them sirens a while ago? 

Cat down the block says that's the cops. Says he heard 
they’s gonna raid the playground and pull in all the 
kids for nothin’. Musta been 'bout twenty cop cars. 


We oughta get over there. 



Nov vait a minute. Go tell that cat he’s fulla hot air, 
and tell everybody else, too. I just called the police 
to check on that story and they told me them vas fire 
engines. A greasy ole stove in that restaurant ’cross 
from the playground caught fire and they sent extra 
I engines to make sure it didn’t spread. 


, "WHAT CAN I DO?" LARGE You’ve probably asked: "What can one person do?" This is 

one ansver: help prevent the spread of rumors. 








Our school has been a bit slow bringing about true 



integration, but I’m only one person. What can I do? 

What can I do? What can I do? 


You should get your P.T.A. to take a stand. 



Madam President, I ■would like to introduce a resolution 
urging complete integration of both our student body 

and faculty. 


You’ve probably asked: "What can one person do?" This 
is one answer: support school integration. 


WHAT CM I DO? - Public Service Announcement #5 

(• 30) 









I kno-w a trade organization like ours should have some 
Negro members, but I'm only one person. What can I do? 

What can I do? What can I do? 



I suppose you could bring it up at the next meeting. 


Mister Chairman, I move that our membership committee 
immediately begin inviting Negroes in our field to 
join our organization. 



You’ve probably asked: "What can one person do?" This 
is one ansvet: -work for the integration of civic and 
trade organizations. 

[IV/i |XJ\j j jr'j ^yj j 

WHAT CM I DO? - Public Sei*vice Announcement Jf6 








I know the city should be doing more to provide 

recreation facilities for the poor, but I’m only one 

person. What can I do? 




What can I do? What can I do? 



Well, why don’t you write to our City Councilman? 



Dear Mrs. Blake...Thank you very much for writing to 

me about playgrounds and pools in poor neighborhoods... 


period.. .paragraph.. .1 can assure jrou that... 




You’ve probably asked: "What can one person do?" This 

is one answer: let your elected officials know how you 


August 30, 1968 

Hr* Nelson Prive 

TRAFC, Television, Radio and Film Commission 
The Hethodist Church 
475 Riverside Drive 
Room 420 

New York, New York 10027 
Dear Mr* Prices 

It was good to visit with you and Ben Logan. 

As I indicated, we have advised all NER stations that 
"Night Call" Is available to them under the terms we 
discussed. I utilized the wording in your promotional 
material in a "Memo to Managers" that will go out of 
our office on August 30. 

1*11 be interested in learning about any added affil¬ 
iates (or even any inquiries) that may result. 

You asked that we provide some subject matter topics 
for "Night Call." A list is enclosed. It was prepared 
by Ken Clark, currently on a 90 day assignment with 
NAEB to develop information regarding programming being 
done by educational radio and television stations. I 
learned after our visit that Ken planned to develop some 
information about your program* My apologies for not 
putting you in touch with each other while you were in 

The suggestion that "Night Call" originate from the Sheraton 
Park Hotel during the 44th annual NAEB Convention on Nov¬ 
ember 21 (Thursday) has met with great favor from other 
staff members. I hope we can work out the details and 
I # ll be getting in touch with you shortly after Labor Day 
to work on this. If you see reasons developing why an 
origination from the convention would not be possible, 

I*d appreciate hearing. 

The Instructional and Professional Services Division of 
NAEB has a convention session scheduled involving telephoae 
call in programs. I believe you will be hearing from 
either Lewis Rhodes or Robert Maull regarding that special 
interest session. I believe they will ask for Del Shields 
to participate in that session. 

page two 
Mr. Price 

August 30, 1968 

This is a firm invitation to either you or Ben Logan 
to be a panel member in a Special Interest Session plan¬ 
ned by NER at 10:30 am to noon on Friday, November 22. 

The general theme of the session will be "programming 
for the Disadvantaged." We hope to present three or 
four program formats currently being utilised and hear 
excerpts from the programs. In addition, we would want 
background comments from a member of the production staff. 

Please let me know if you or Ben will appear so that we may 
work out details. NER asks panel members to pay their own 
expenses. I wish it were not so but it is ~ and I 
wanted to advise you before you make a commitment. 


Robert A. Mott 

RAM: Ikl 

cc: Ken Clark 
Lew Rhodes 


The Urban Coalition 

1815 H Street, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20006 
Telephone: 347-9630 

CHAIRMAN: John W. Gardner 

CO-CHAIRMEN: Andrew Heiskell / A. Philip Randolph 

September 5, 1968 

Mr. Kenneth Clark 

National Association of Educational Broadcasters 
1346 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 

Dear Mr. Clark: 

Your proposed format of an all black panel and moderator 
discussing urban problems with white "reactors" asking 
questions has me intrigued. I'll admit I have trouble 
envisioning men who have the ability to contribute to 
the discussion that John Gardner and Fred Harris have 
being limited to asking questions. I can see men of 
this caliber on the panel and in on the discussion while 
you let savvy newsmen ask the questions. But you didn't 
ask me. 

Still, my basic doubts about the viability of the format 
get in the way of my recommending candidates for 
participation. Under your ground rules I would suggest 
some very knowledgeable professionals, such as some 
of the top staff members of the Kerner Commission or 
the people who did the research for the last of the 
"Of Black America" series. This kind of person could 
bring clinical objectivity and a possession of factual 
information to the discussion. (So could a really 
well-informed newsman.) I am afraid the philosophers 
would be badly cut up. 

I hope this negative reaction to our first encounter doesn't 
put you off. I think there are useful things our 
two organizations can do together. 

Vice President/Commyfnications 


88.1 fm 


September 3, 1968 

Mr. Ken Clark 

National Educational Radio 

1346 Connecticut Ave., N. W. 

Washington, D. C. 20036 

Dear Ken: '• 

F irst, thank you for the very flattering comments about KDPS 

and especially our philosophy. 

Second, I hope you can help me find a program about each of the , 
following: Stokley Charmichael, Rap Brown and Malcolm X. 
Specifically, what we are seeking is a 15 minute in-school 
program on each to help round out the “Negro in America" series 
produced by WNYE.* Any ideas? 

Third, you may be interested to know that when our black 
“DJ" Ezell Wiggins left for college last week, that we were 
hung for a replacement and finally were forced to announce 
that "Soul Session" would be taken off the air. The next 
morning I got a call from a young Negro asking if there was 
anything that could be done and indicating that he would like 
to "give it a try" because "it is the only thing we have" in 
Des Moines. He indicated that every young person he had talked 
to in his community liked and listened to the show and didn’t want 
it to go off, but didn't know what they could do to keep it on! 
Well, to make a long story short, thanks to the initiative of 
one young person, many will keep "the only thing" they have. 

Chuck Holloway is the young man's name - and I wish there were 
more like him! 

Bwignt E. Herbert 
Radio Director 







September 6, 1968 

Mr. Ken Clark 

1346 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20036 

Dear Ken: 

Just a brief note to let you know what a pleasure it 
was meeting and talking with you last week in your 
office and at lunch. 

A s yo u know, I had the pleasure of attending the 

Nat ional Black Power Conference in Philadelphia. I 

must report that I found a great deal of acceptance 

on exploring the utilization of public broadcasting. 

Hopefu 11y, the job you are doing and~T!Te~5r^al<^~ 

throughs that are coming up will continue so as to 

make public.broadcasting really relevant to all of 

our needs. • 

I wish also to again offer my help in any way in 
relationship to the up-coming NAEB Convention and, 
in particular, the Urban Area Section. Realizing 
that you are leaving before the Convention, I am 
wondering who will be responsible for this vital 
area after you leave and, also, if you will offer 
my assistance to whoever it might be. 

Again, it was a pleasure, and I do wish you the best 
of luck in your future endeavors. 

Walter S. Brooks 
/Executive Producer, 
Urban Affairs 






September 4, 1968 


Mr. Ken Clark 

Project Director 

Program for the Disadvantaged 

National Association of Educational Broadcasters 
1346 Connecticut Avenue, NW 
Washington, D. C. 20036 

Dear Ken: 

The response will be heard, not seen. 


Nicholas Johnson 
Commis sioner 

P. S. 

I'm still listening. 







Walter S*. Brodks 

Executive Producer, Urban Affairs 


To discuss the above subject with meaning and depth, I think we 
should first attempt to discover exactly what we are talking aboutl 

It seems to me that there are some issues and points that need 

One; The many different directions and points 
of view. 

Secondly; What do we want exactly to communicate 
and to whom? 

Thirdly; Why do we want to communicate it ? 

To discuss the role of communication we must first attempt to 
define communication. 

If we can agree that in a narrow sense it would mean “to impart 
or to make known" we can proceed to define its role in our development. 

Further, if the conference purpose of “forging a Black people- 
hood and Black nation in thought, experience, and to establish a variety 
of techniques, workable methods and alternate strategies" is agreed upon, 
then communications will play the major role. 

The theory or practice of communications has existed since time 
immemorial; that is, the communications of one to one - one to many - 
many to one. The ability and method of communicating is the very simple 
principle of sending and receiving. For example, Y wants to communicate 
with X, If it is direct, then the only problem facing Y is sending or 
putting the message in a way or form that will be clearly understood 

hile it always been a vary difficult problem, given the 
responsibility of sending and receiving (what one or many say and what 
one or ..any receive) - - it is now very critical in terms of the compli¬ 
cated technical media that have been devised* For example wnen you begin 
to ueal with various media (i.e* television and radio) the job becomes 
extre ely difficult* That's not to say it would be impossible to send 
and receive the messages clear and exact, but only that unless the send¬ 
er is sensitive to the needs of the receiver a break down is more likely. 
Given the above analysis, I would summarize and illustrate the 
above by pointing out that where at first mass coni, unicat ion was accom¬ 
plished by print, it is now possible through radio and television to 
com,..unicate i.nnediatel y and on such a massive scale that nan's entire 
being is subtly and psychologically af.ected through the influence, and 
I submit persuasiveness of present Jay communication Methods* 

In the past we had to rely primarily on the "grape-vine" word of 
mouth and often times the reporting was inadequate, because of changes 
en route and because of our lack of a system or systems that would give 
us complete knowledge and a true picture. This we can understand be¬ 
cause of the very conscious and sometimes unconscious efforts made by 
all of the news media (and even those who have served our community) to 
emasculate us and perpetuate the oppressive racist system that disfran¬ 
chises, colonizes and enslaves us* 

Mow that we have begun to move meaningful 1y to the area of com¬ 
munications, I would urge that our objective to corn..tunicate should be 
based on a high degree of integrity, to make known ,ionest1y and fairly 
and to avoid certain past practices of the communications media. If we 
can do this, then the projection of our thing and the revolution, would 
be a very simple task, 

- 2 - 

To discuss communications in relationship to Nationhood would 
again prompt us to define a state of nationhood. While I will attempt 
to avoid the phi 1osophical and intellectual rhetoric, I will perhaps 
lean toward the understanding that the geographic locations of the 
Black nation in America is anyplace there is a lar^e concentration of 
Clack people. The point I will stress as a personal opinion is that 
the critical area of nationhood and the area we «.iust deal with on an 
urgent basis is the “state of mind". 

Given the fact that as a group of people we occupy large cru¬ 
cial sections of this country, it is unfortunate that we do not control 
them. The absolute need for self-government of these areas and the 
control of the power, wealth, and resources will only be met providing 
we develop a basic concept of ourselves! This position demands that we 
see and clearly understand the problem. It f s not just political, econ¬ 
omic, or cultural, but the entire abuse of humanity. I would further 
submit, that as someone once.skid, “Freedom is a state of mind". Until 
we, as a beautiful race of people who have survived impossible condi¬ 
tions and oppression can absolutely perceive ourselves as not being 
underprivileged, wretched, psychologically ill-equipped, etc., etc,, 
etc.,etc., we cannot even begin to develop a nationhood. To underscore 
this I would submit that the primary solution to achieving nationhood 
is the establishment of communication and agreement among Black people, 
for the purpose of achieving.••••.a universal “Black State of Mind". 

This is made evident by the fact that a large segment of the 
Black community has been brainwashed into accepting the white America^ 
characterization of the revolution. This in turn, has often led to 
conflict, name-calling and in sane cases, being at ‘war with ourselves. 

> 3 - 

This is very eviuent when some Wi.o are defined as militants or moderates 
perceive themselves as such, and act or react accordingly. If the above 
point of view has any validity then I would submit that perhaps one of 
the culprits or factor is the role played by television and radio. 

h'hen the late Or. Martin Luther King made the statement "lacking 
sufficient access to television, publications and broad forums, ilegroes 
had to write their most persuasive essays with the blunt pen of "march¬ 
ing ranks" he hit upon a very key and crucial point. If we had control 
or the influence of the critical ..<edia at that juncture of the struggle, 
who can say, but that now we would 1 nt have a much clearer prospectus.... 
That the characterization would not have been more in tune with the as¬ 
pirations and objectives we have always sought.... That a point of view 
big enough to capture the imagination of all Black people would not have 
developed. To offset and illustrate this I would like for us to examine 
some of the things that are now being attempted by television. 

In Florida a daily television program "Its Our Bag" has a maga¬ 
zine format v/i th a variety of features. One segment of the program 
called "he Are history" enlisted the help of united Black students of the 
University of Miami* 

Los .Angeles "Hack Perspective'**series that gives the southern 
California Black press an outlet. 

San Francisco "Blacks Blues Black" a series featuring Ghanian 
Journalist-Actress-Playwright-Singer Maya Andelon. 

Mlwaukee "Blackboard" a weekly series of soul music and discus¬ 
sions of its . eaning - Black history, culture, etc, 

Chicago "Our People" a . agazine format featuring ne,/s, entertain¬ 
ment and public service. 

- 4 - 

Jetroit "In Your Own Interest" a discussion format. 

Washington U.C, "blackboard Girl" a phone-in program that talks 
the language of the ghetto. 

Boston "The Oruni" a series described as a "station within a sta¬ 
tion" geared to the DJack community, 

Minneapolis "Black Voices" a program which showcases black art, 
t.ieatre and history. The idea of the program, is stated at the top of 
each show: "Black Voices is for Glack people, but anyone can watch, can 
listen, can think". 

There are many other things in the area of television that are now 
in progress, but we have yet to go beyond scratching the surface in terms 
of a simple form of communicating within the Clack Community. 

I would present for discussions that as we deliberate on the for¬ 
mation of a National and local 31ack communication system, we consider 
not only the question of how we can use television and radio, but more 
important, how we can protect ourselves against the impact and ramifi¬ 
cations of white controlled media. 

Therefore, I recommend the adoption of the following concept, to 
be achieved through all of our communication efforts,.. 

"The 31ack state of mind, is the begining 
and should be in the final analysis the 
determining factor on which our nation¬ 
hood will be developed." 



Information Committee 

I think you WlllNbe 
interested in some 
ideas on how busi¬ 
ness can contribute 
to solving the nation’s 
social problems that 
are suggested in this 
talk by CED's Chairman, 
William C. Stolk. 

477 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10022 

FOR RELEASE: 12 noon 

Thursday, September 26 




William C. Stolk, Chairman, 
Committee for Economic Development 
before the 

National Association of Business Economists 
September 26, 1968 

Mr. Reeder's generous introduction reminds me of 
the wife who read the fortune-telling card her husband got 
from a penny weighing machine. "You are a leader," she read, 
"with a magnetic personality and strong character — intelligent, 
witty and attractive to the opposite sex." Then she turned 
the card over and added, "it has your weight wrong, too." 

I welcome this opportunity to talk to you. Both the 
National Association of Business Economists and CED are greatly 
concerned with the American corporation's responsibility to 
help solve our country's serious social problems — urban 

development, civil rights, and education. 

- 2 - 

Business economists are in a key position to inform 
top management about the hard facts and the practical possibilities 
of dealing with these problems. You help management define 
corporate goals which determine how and to what extent the 
corporation invests its resources. And you have the professional 
skills to devise means of measuring the return on such investments. 

It has become imperative for business to undertake social 
responsibilities on a major scale. This is urgently required 
because of government's demonstrated inability to deal with many 
of these problems effectively — under conditions of political 
influence, inexperience, and profligate use of tax money. Business 
has the talent and experience to lead the way by enlisting the 
resources of our economy in solving our national problems. And 
there isn't the slightest doubt in my mind that business must now 
assume the responsibility of this leadership if we are to avoid 

The question is how to do it. 

As a long-time member of the association of chief 
executive officers, I have much sympathy with the plight of my 
colleagues. A chief executive who really would like to commit 
enough corporate resources to help solve our major social 
problems faces the prospect that the directors will consider him 
a starry-eyed philanthropist — the stockholders will feel he is 
wasting their money — the investment funds will dump his stock 
because such crackpot management may reduce earnings — the 

competitors will take advantage of their lower costs to 
undermine him in the market — and even if he surmounts all these 
the government may foul it all up for him anyway. So it is no 
wonder that many chief executives are testing the water gingerly 
and looking around to see who is getting his feet wet. 

As one who has been thoroughly immersed in these 
problems, I am going to suggest some ways in which corporations 
can organize and carry out their social responsibilities more 

The first step, I believe, is for the chief executive 
officer to appoint a qualified senior executive to manage the 
corporation’s public business just as systematically as its 
private business . This man should be an executive vice president 
and a director. Public business is an ideal area for the man 
who has risen through the corporate hierarchy to become a 
finalist in the competition for the presidency, and who might 
be lost to the company unless he has a fresher and more challenging 
assignment than a secondary spot in the new executive setup. 

Our executive vice president for public business 
should be a director because this area of corporate activity 
deserves the involvement of the board. The qualification for 
outside directors should include knowledge and competence in 
the broader social, political, and economic affairs that 
affect the company. Two or three of these directors could 
constitute a public business committee of the board along with 

- 4 - 

the chief executive officer and the executive vice president 
for this activity. 

Within the company, the executive vice president for 
public business must have the corporate resources necessary 
to do the job. This means staff — particularly some of the 
bright, young tigers who are often bottled up in the more 
rigid line bureaucracies, and the idealistic college graduates 
who have been passing up business for the Peace Corps and the 
Job Corps. 

And it means money. Since the company has a clear 
self-interest in improving its social environment, this activity 
should be considered just as much a part of the true cost of doing 
business as any other costs — raw material, sales expense, power 
and light. The monies required for improving the social environ¬ 
ment should be budgeted and managed as any other operating budget. 

The public business of the corporation is, in fact, a 
line not a staff function — on exactly the same level as manu¬ 
facturing and marketing. This approach completely changes the 
meaning of corporate execution of its social responsibilities. 

As a working line department of the company, the public business 
group must be equally accountable for its performance and produce 
satisfactory results. 

Now that we are organized, how do we tackle the job? 

- 5 - 

The public business group, including particularly 
business economists, should start by making an inventory of all 
the problems and opportunities. One type of problem, for 
example, is that which the corporation has actually created — 
such as air and water pollution. It is fair to say that most 
corporations now understand that they have the primary responsi¬ 
bility to clean up their own 'messes” — and to use natural resources 
in such a way as to maintain their value for others. 

The opportunities for corporations to apply their resources 
to help solve broader social problems is less clear because, for 
the most part, they have not been examined either imaginatively 
or systematically. 

Looked at this way, there is almost no social task to 
which some corporation could not make a significant contribution. 

This is because our corporations have absolutely unique capabilities 
in research, technology, and managerial skills — and these are 
precisely what is needed. If Aerojet General and North American 
Aviation can apply systems analysis to pollution abatement and 
public transportation for the State of California; if Litton and 
ITT can run education and job-training camps for the Job Corps — 
why should not every corporation find an area of social improvement 

that matches its capabilities. 

- 6 - 

After completing the inventory of social problems and 
opportunities, the public business group should develop a 
strategic plan — the corporate resources, both money and talent, 
that would be required; the priorities; the relationship between 
the company's piece of the problem and the responsibilities of 
others in industry and in the governmental sector; and the 
results to be attained, both for the corporation and for society. 
This provides the basis for establishing a public business budget 
and going into operation. 

At this point, we face three important considerations 
— profitability, burden-sharing, and the private-public sector 

I think there are two ways to deal with the profitability 
problem. One is for the corporation to be clear about what it 
requires to do the job — including tax benefits, specific types 
of government assistance, or other inducements. The appropriate 
public authorities then could determine whether the results would 
be worth the costs, in light of alternative ways of getting the 
job done. 

The second is to reexamine our traditional concepts and 
measurements of "profit," many of which haven't changed since 
Adam Smith. We have all heard speeches by heads of companies — I 
have made some myself — stressing the fact that people are the 
company's most valuable asset. The speech goes something like 
this: "We can build factories, build machines and laboratories 


but we must have people to manage them profitably." Yet, we 
capitalize the buildings and machinery but the investment in aid 
to education is treated as a philanthropic activity — and we don’t 
even bother to measure the benefits. If we treated it as a 
capital investment, the money put into education would go up 

Another factor to consider is what it costs not to do the 
job. The cost is corporate, employee, and shareholder taxes to 
pay for the efforts of public agencies. In many instances, the 
corporation probably could enhance its profitability by doing the 
public business job at lower margins, or it could break even, 
instead of paying the taxes for somebody else to do it — perhaps 

The problem of burden-sharing is very closely related to 
profitability. Industry is spending more than $3 billion a year 
on air and water pollution abatement, and it is estimated this 
would have to be increased manyfold to bring the problem under 
control. I'm sure there are very few chief executive officers — 
even with strong social consciences — who would relish the notion 
of quadrupling their company's expenditures on pollution control 
unless they were sure all their competitors would be just as 

public spirited . 

The result is that business generally proceeds by the 
lowest common denominator of industry action — or inaction. 
Government then has to take over and set the standards that industry 

- 8 - 

could have established for itself. Business pays most of the 
bill, which is almost always higher than if industry had done 
the job in the first place, and it gets the blame for foot-dragging 
while the government gets the credit for acting in the public 

It doesn't take much intelligence to figure out that 
this is self-defeating. And it isn't too difficult to find a 
better way. The machinery is already in place — the industry or 
trade associations. All we have to do is turn them around: 
convert them from rear-guard defenders of the status quo into 
instrumentalities for collective industry action in the public 

The industry association is the place where corporate 
public business executives can bring their proposed action 
programs — sort out who does what — decide on a fair apportion¬ 
ment of the costs — and work out a detailed industry plan and time 
schedule for solving the problem. There need be no antitrust 
difficulty, and there is every indication that government, as 
well as public opinion, would welcome such initiatives. 

If one or two leading companies in our major industries 
would take strong leadership in this direction, we could get 
results very quickly. I had some personal experience in helping 
set up Keep America Beautiful when my company and other packaging 
producers were threatened with legislation that would have outlawed 
disposable containers to prevent unsightly litter. It was fairly 
easy to persuade all diverse segments of the industry to adequately 

- 9 - 

finance the program to deal with the problem. The service clubs, 
national parks associations, state and local organizations, all 
understood we would see the job through because it was in our 
self-interest to do so. 

I believe this approach has very great possibilities — 
not just for burden-sharing but more positively for effectively 
mobilizing the economic resources required to help solve major 
social problems which are too big and costly for any single 
company. In some areas we are beginning to apply the industry-wide 
approach to the hiring, specialized education and training of 
unemployables. Similarly, corporations in the construction and 
related industries might jointly supply materials for ghetto 
rebuilding projects — or for the new, stepped-up low income housing 
program — at much lower margins than would be the case in their 

regular course of business. 

Most of the major trade associations have done this sort 
of resource mobilization job in wartime, and the government 
facilitated it by permitting the lifting of certain peacetime 
restrictions. There is every reason why we should do the same 
thing in the comparable kind of national emergency we now face. 

The resources are available in the private sector to 
make the critical contribution to solving our urban, civil rights, 
and educational problems. Total business sales last year, for 
example, were more than $600 billion. Just a few per cent of that, 
applied to the operating costs of those businesses, and added 
in an organized and equitable fashion to our present efforts to 
improve our social environment, would make a massive difference 

- 10 - 

without Impairing the economic strength of American business in the 
slightest. And it would be money well invested. It would come back 
in increasing long-term profitability, in holding down the tax 
burden, and in assuring an environment for business growth and 

Now, a word about the private-public sector relationships. 

I think it is obvious that business and government must develop the 
same kind of effective partnership in social problem-solving that 
has been achieved in wartime. This will be helped enormously by 
business organizing itself for effective action on those aspects 
of the problems it can best handle — by being quite clear about 
what it will take in the way of reasonable profit incentives < 
and by measuring the results of its social investments. We must 
insist that government do likewise — develop an effective 
organizational structure out of the present hodgepodge of agencies, 
define its areas of greatest competence, and also measure its results. 

Government, for example, should pay the bills for general 

3nu tO'jLsq nisitco u - ; ;i / bvl&t H tout 

education and other functions of general benefit to the community. 

It must maintain the conditions — particularly of high employment 

. son t V’OJt 9W !. y oo vmi n; 

and steady growth — under which the private sector can function 

Jt •: • .*"j OO? :*?l. / m ~S: i U: i • ', 7 i\ :.• i /•; \ .y: -r.-. V 

effectively. It is precisely in this area of private-public 

, aiivgl-’. i ivio . rcacw two ;griv loo ■ no i. dud L-sidoa Ibc-xJ i-to orkt 

sector relationships and performance that CED has made its 

tOi /irsv .iasX aelss Monisud :r,JoT .ameldoiq Cenoiiaoubs bus 

greatest contributions. 

. f Brftf lo tma-j toq wet a iaul- , noi.l£.td 00©?; isdi J- iom e-tow , elqmBxe 

My remarks have been an attempt to indicate some of the ways 

behhi ,asaadaiaud 

in which the great and critically-needed resources of private enterprise 

33 - 

can be applied to public purposes. And I hope I have stimulated your 

eonsxolt ib wia?trn n odam binow , tnomno’S'ivxr© in rsoe wo evow mi 

own thinking about the role of the business economist in this process. 

Dates August 31, 196ft 
From: Arthur Rungerford 

Tos Dr* George Bair, Chairman Employment Practices Committee 

This will be "self-typed" but I 1 11 try to keep it legible* 

I want it to reach you Just ASAP* If you agree, these abstracts of 
what’s going on - constructively - oan be sent out to all of our 
stations as encouragement for them to develop local patterns with 
some of the same goals* As I see it, these abstracts can be one part 
of our final report to the Board andthe membership; the remainddr 
being our resolutions and any other comments you f d care to make* 

I have enjoyed - if that’s the word - working with this 
committee and while T have serious reservations about some of the 
tactics T’ve observed in the process, I do believe that the end 
result will be positive and helpful to NAEB and to those member 
stations which wish to make orogress in helping America solve this 
enormous social problem* ^ • 

My position on our last resolution needs a word of final 
explanation* I voted aga’nst It because it is unrealistic and 
potentially dangerous* NAEB is a professional organization - true - 
but not to be compared in strength with the American Medical 
Association (to which I say thank goodness in one sense) Q I f ve 
seen the time when the whole batch of KTV stations were wanting to 
leave NAEB for less reasons than the application - or threat of s ame « 
of some punitive policy* The Civil Rights Act is the law of tho land 
and FCC already seems to be ready to apply it to all stations regardless 
of sis* While many other type operations will be deferred because of 
small size* I say let FCC apply the regulation and until they have 
failed to do so I see no point in anticipating that they will* So let 
FCC be punitive and let NAEB do all it can to help those stations 
which want to solve this problem honestly and constructively. I think 
we will be pleasantly surprised how many educational broadcasters 
fit this more pleasant mold* 

Now to the abstracts: 

lo American University - WA'UT and Roger Penn* This is the 
2nd year of she1r drban Broadensting Workshop, a University-Industry 
Project* Most of you have seen the brochure* With the help of 
school counselors, NAACP, Urban League, eto^ high school Juniors 
of oromise are selected from schools in center city ( ashington) 
and provided a tuition-free, intensive, one-month summer workshop* 

Free lunch is provided and when more money can be found* carfare will 
be paid too* Most of these students (about 17 each year) have had no 
exposure to, or thought of, broadcasting as a career* In this second 
year some of the first year "graduates" have been nicked up on work- 
study programs, scholarships, etc*, and probably 10 of them,$t least, 
will enter college, several in broadcasting majors* Roger Penn will 
assist any university or station which wants to try this successful 
formulaFinancing is by donations from commercial broadcasters*(We 
would hone that educational broadcasters would help too* The amount: 

Is small and should be a natural for foundation support) 


. I, „ 2 °^ The J.r at5e r 8 °° Pro:,eo<i " David Berkman. Xerox developed 

*? 1 f^eationai package and several skills packages, Including 
motion pictures for example, which was successfully tried out In 
Paterson with drop-outs and equivalent from ghetto conditions. 1 

undertefcH S^f**?!* ar0 available to any group whloh wishes to 
undertake a similar project In their own city. Contact Berkman 
at Xerox - 600 ’tadlson Ave. HTC 

3.fggC - Wew York Seymour Siegel. For 5 years WNYC has 
collaborated with the George Westlnghouse High School (Technical) 
to provide Instruction and practlouum for 25 students each year 

rradua«„S »e$ 8 *„ <na ?E ? CC I’ 10 *" 88 ’ Requirement Is high 
fJjfS'**; 1 “ the ethnic mix las turned out to be about even 

Is the n.b6M?nw» tS r ue r t0 R . lc8ns ' > WNYC ’ 8 TOP station 

althnfwh ?h?r f the Instruction, and guarantees a Job 

aVMed 8 ^^ has been no problems 1th some students going Into 
allied fields such as computers. 

s *S«l “Iso provided a tip on accomplishing 

l8 invni™rt Sa wv 1 «L h if lng 4 . mlnorlty grou P 8 whon olvil service 
to avnfrt dlreot recruitment Is unspeolflc - Intentionally 

"In f^vor" 1 ^ n t C r es 2 lffloult t0 discriminate 7 wlnoritlaso But t ransf er from other departments 

is easier and then you know the person you are trying to transfero 

-ss-r.-effi iusvjffaiys 

S.” 8 ™ J45SSU? 

KasSsfr s-t-k sjxrjss.'ts » 

we should make all kinds of suggestions to our s tatlons as t o 

«~*jsSi2t , -sss s , .iis*^j*S2J?; 1 rn t mi? 

Radio. 0 B e specific In WTC and perhaps elsewhere^ StlonS 

of“uSrpmopU 8 (BerLan). Wh0 * U1 PU * “ P * 3 ’ 6 °° f0r fc ho *•*■*"« 

Ttai™™7?f«r t 2? T prograra sponsored by Allen and Benedict 
universlties« The program serves the dual purposes of hAininrr 

to^Se fllwf e mf 8 eduo^? U “ fch ff ^ucatlon P while IntroduclSfthem 
o the fields of education and televlalon as potential careers. 



^v. n °^ eS B *y that Stela and ielntosh also have programs which 
foportadmore fully than I oan (since I loft the main 
to Balp! h * ott 1 ' ia8htn 8 6oB ' 80 Pl«*s« do ao In separata memo* 

5o MB?— f— SIS. - Da Safcnlck. «flth the cooperation of the I8KW 
union a studenfc (part-time) can work 2f> hours per week at WtfDT 
as a kind of apprentice @ $ 2,75 P®* 1 hour or $ 55 per week for 
°_' iI " a ^ no ® will then be conaldered for an opening 
8 ‘ T Y^ l J m& If and when hired gets $ 127.50 per week to start 

This la ^r« e th«»*a 2 Jn " 88k 88 8 P 88 * 1 ‘I®d by the union contract. 
This la more than S 10,000 per year. (I can't think of any other 

place In our society where one oan progress more rapidly than that) 

6. Brooklyn College - Gene Poster. He will give broadcasting 
to scents recruited under the SKWt program; students 8 

SwoT!.?? Jj Ul bBt up-grading before they can compete 

fairly with other eollego level students. I n this way he will 
leaven thetr academic diet and also attract potentially good 
students Into broadcasting. He hopes to offer these students 
all of the broadcasting courses over the next three veara 
A commercial radio station In NYC Is talking to him about* 

’^5: ssi^Wf'»ss , 3 , .K'^rss 

... ,7;H ■ Gary Indiana This Is a high school station (V*d/'.s) 

a tethnlonlTfch 0 b £ % 8r S* 1 ''? pattern. It will be -oved to' * ' 

a technical high school* Now it is in an essentiality whit* 

sohool. The technical high school will draw from all over the 
t present 35 students are In the radio broadcasting 

Hlcan ^tudenJr J nol uding several lexloan and Pwrto 

Hlcan studenta. The point In Including this Is that educational 

arron»!menf / ork 7i th 8electe<1 high schoola and work out an 1 
arrangement of provide facilities for schools which wanted t « 

«» ■« >»* ° 

«».y .ii iS 

screened by Youth Opoortunity Corns* All. win « anTla „ *. . . 

%■ fim “ 1 ’- 

TOna 0 ?^* 1 ^^ 1 ?? bu8 JjJf 88#8 “ not hy the sohool district which 
run the st tlon. This provides staff to the station they 

sss.;!?„-r ' *"° rt ,na h,i “. 

* ' Ty -?.f» ?'**3ft Stone* Has created a special 

position - equipment technician - and hire minority oeonle fnr* u 


lO.WHYV-l’hllBdelohla Warren Kraetzer reporta that they 
attempted a trainee pro/ ; ram for minority persona last year but 
ran Into difficulty with the union In regard to production and 
engineering assignments. However, they intend to try again this 

11 .i”yxz- , pv - Cleveland Oettv Cope reports that they have tried 
tbe e roense of training negroes but finds It pretty 4 
frustrating whan after 6 months of Investment of time andeffort 
the commercial stations woo them away with higher pay. She wishes 
there was some way to guarantee the loyalty of those she train* * 
but with educational salaries this la difficult. 

. ^ aa ^Yllle - Bob Shepherd reportxthat thev - 

o 1 c ° m ? oro lal )hroadoaa tors-have accepted'” 7 
groups of 8 - 12 students from high school. The program goes 
through the year, apparently In non-class hours aboutThfurS 
tSkefS 8b ° Ut 12 8M8lon8 *" *** "eourse*. E a ch station 

xSMSTtFSS n*K“* 8B ” tt ° r ** ia ”“ »»««i* «* 

thaw Htl ^~ PS F ^, and TV DasMolnes. John Montgomery reports that 
* hoy «• gently working In cooperation with the Dee Moines 
areas Of rarti 8 ln . 6 || 8 ti,8l " ln e ° f high school students In the 
ele«tr^nin* dl ° 8 " d t fi evlslon production, communication 
electronics,c ommerold art, etc. The Input Is mutl-raclal 
although he Implies no special effort to recruit minorities. 

wherahv%Ksffi W as 51 * 1 * " B ° b Chllttaler reportra training program 
neeMes Part-time employment and Job training to young 

S council.*' 8 tlra8 * Al8 ° WOrMnK " lth 10081 8 “ w! 

i 081188 B ° b '" tl8 °* report that as he takes over fee 
goes on^say" mf,mbol ‘ 8 of “Verity groups on his staff. He 

. .. MAs a result I have undertaken an active carroai&n 

and^osltlons°of e resp”nslblllty n by 1 Channel P 13 f °l have n s n ^k P0S t'*° n8 

s'everlfof ? h ° ™> 8 “ L^oSch^h '° 

whlthfi f® ople we a ^o now writing and determining 
whether they could come to work for the station,, S 

coIIacao <rt”Jvs h8Ve not y et had the chance to contact Negro 
colleges In the area, though this will be done within the nerk 
two weeks« The school X think we would especially develoo 
a great working relationship with is Bishop College. 


"I’m deeply concerned about our present status and I 
am making every effort to Improve It*" 

It is on that note I leave with a restatement of my 
position that it’s people like Wilson I want to encourage 
and help rather than hurl veiled threats at othenvho 
may not be so positively motlvatedo tet FCC be negative 
if some organisation must be so« We will be oosltlvee 


I realise that to single out the above examples for 
reporting I have not reported on many other efforts which 
were noted by stations replying to our questlonnalre 0 The 
essence of all such comments is recorded on the tabulation 
sheets and further analysis of them may swell the list 
of examples noted aboveo 


CO Members of Employment Practices Committee 
**entoers of the Board of NAEB 


August 30, 1968 

Mr. Raymond Shirley 

Department of Radio Services 
the University of Tennessee 
14 Ayres Hall 

Knoxville, Tennessee 37916 
Dear Mr. Shirley: 

I received your letter of the 28th this morning and want to 
answer immediately. I am sure I do not have all the solutions to 
your questions, but let me try. 

First, let me say that you are surely not alone in your con¬ 
cerns about doing anything dramatic in the way of changing an image 
that has been intelligently and carefully built over a period of 
years. Marjorie Newman, Manager of WFSU-FM in Tallahassee wrote 
to me recently and expressed the identical thought. X think her 
answer, which I quote in part, is similar to your own: 

"As is probably the case with many educational radio 
stations, we have on the basis of past programming 
built up an audience that is sophisticated, well- 
educated and in middle to higher income brackets. 

This has been a barrier to our broadcasting programs 
intended directly for the disadvantaged. I feel that 
unless we devote a sizable portion of our broadcast 
day to this group we could not interest it in listening 
to FM even if sets were available. We have therefore 
aimed our productions at the audience we know listens, 
hoping to promote action on its part since many of 
these listeners are in positions in the community in 
which it is possible to do so." 

"Success" is a relative term and neither you nor I will ever 
really know the full extent to which other FM stations are achieving 
it in their programs by, for or about the Disadvantaged. I can say 
that some of these stations report positive reception to their pro¬ 
grams (word-of-mouth, letter, telephone and press coverage); but 
none of these stations can afford much formal audience research and 
are obliged to rely on these admittedly old-fashioned methods. It 
is fair to at least say that their communities are responding (and 
it isn't all positive) in several ways; the stations are enthusiastic 

Page 2 

August 30, 1968 

To: Mr. Raymond Shirley 

From: Kenneth R. Clark 

about what they are attempting; they seem to be accomplishing 
some good things in giving voice to people long neglected (be 
the recipients Negro, Puerto Rican, Mexican American, migrant 
workers, American Indians, or poor Whites) . In several cases 
there appears to be a direct link between station programs and 
positive community action. I do know these stations are com¬ 
mitted to make a definite effort in this area with or without 
cost to themselves. Sensitive issues have been raised an aired 
publicly; official toes have been stepped upon; there has been 
criticism against the stations. However, I do think it is also 
fair to report that none of these stations are considered "radical”. 
None have been in "hot water" very long and all ultimately see 
their program judgements vindicated. 

I can also report that all of these stations shut down their 
transmitters at night with a clear conscience (and that includes 
stations in Tennessee, Missouri, Florida and Louisiana). I think 
the point is that our country is locked in a domestic crisis of 
enormous dimensions. The problem will not go away by itself. On 
the contrary, I am of the personal belief that the worst is still 
ahead of us. The NAEB feels that non-commercial broadcasting has 
an obligation to get into the mainstream of this crisis and make 
a valid contribution. 

There is no question of "pressure." We both know this asso¬ 
ciation is In no position to pressure its member stations, nor would 
there be any value in trying. However a clear philosophical position 
is emerging within the NAEB that is In tune with the realities of 
1968. I think it will stand any test, withstand any contrary opin¬ 
ions. Why? Because there is scant choice to do anything else in 
light of what is happening in America. This, of course, is one 
reason for my reports to both radio and television stations. The 
NAEB wants to stimulate a national dialogue on the issue, but I 
think there is also real advantage in letting stations know they 
are not alone in this, that sister stations are already fighting 
these battles and are winning them every day. 

Now, having said all that, let me come back to the specifics 
of WUOT. Who is to say that your station is not already doing 
everything it can do? You are producing your own materials in 
the human relations category. You do carry HER and other materials 
on these subjects. But I note that you say you have offended some 
and "they have remained loyal to us." It seems to me you already 
are finding your own answers. Whether you should do more or less 
is entirely up to you. WUOT must perform its unique broadcasting 
services within the context of the Knoxville listenership, against 
the framework of your own special circumstances. Only you can 
best determine how much effort your station can reasonably make 
and in what manner. 

Page 3 

August 30* 1968 

To: Mr. Raymond Shirley 

From: Kenneth R. Clark 

For WUOT to dramatically begin programming Soul Music makes 
no sense unless you have a real purpose. Who listens to WUOT? 
Are you convinced your listeners are not interested in that kind 
of music? I cannot answer that; you can. Might you have a 
larger audience, perhaps even a more devoted audience if you 
went more heavily into reflecting this issue? I don’t know; you 

I don’t think anyone can give you adequate answers because 
no one other than yourself can possibly understand what WUOT and 
Knoxville mean to each other. So two stations are alike; that is 
part of the joy of broadcasting in this country. These specialized 
"images” are incredibly varied as you know even within a single 
city. Your letter suggests some concern over whether WUOT is doing 
as much as other stations. X don’t think that is relevant. You 
are doing things; you are making an effort. Whether that effort 
should be more or less is up to you. Maybe Marjorie Newman’s idea 
of tailoring her programs for the Disadvantaged clearly and spe¬ 
cifically to her educated audience, knowing that audience is in a 
position to work changes, makes sense within the WUOT context. 

The real impact on listeners as a result of human relations 
programming varies from station to station. I cannot give you 
a clear cut answer. Nor can I tell you if regular listeners 
dropped away. My reports do give a contact person for each 
station discussed. You might find relevant answers, perhaps 
even surprising answers should you want to write directly to 
these people. 

I think there is a misunderstanding about the obligation of 
any station in this perplexing and ephemeral thing called human 
relations. No station is expected to forget its loyal listener- 
ship. No station is asked to alter its image overnight, or even 
ever. But Life changes. And the people who listen to radio change 
within themselves and from one generation to another. The status- 
quo in broadcasting just doesn’t exist. It isn’t the nature of 
the medium. 

Many stations have found that the more deeply they involve 
themselves in the human predicaments of their comnunities, the 
more fully they play an active role, the more challenging and 
satisfying become their places in those communities. 

I don’t really think WUOT has a problem, and I hope the pro¬ 
gram reports have not suggested anything of the kind by comparison. 
The reports are designed as a means of sharing ideas, nothing more. 

Page 4 

August 30, 1968 

To: Mr. Raymond Shirley 

From; Kenneth R. Clark 

Some stations are happily "pirating" from this information, and 
that is good. Other stations are simply pleased to learn what 
is going on in other shops. But just knowing what is going on 
can promote a number of positive avenues. If nothing else, it 
can fire our imaginations and encourage us to stretch, to seek, 
to explore and to finally turn the mirror back on ourselves and 
ask, "Is it enough?" 

The measure of effectiveness of these programs is different 
for every station. There are no general rules. We are writing 
rules today and changing them tomorrow. I urge you to write some 
of these other stations and put your questions to them. I think 
you’ll find some of their answers remarkably useful. 

Sincerely yours. 

Kenneth R. Clark, 
Project Director 


P.S. I cannot resist pointing out the nomination of Julian Bond 
for Vice-President by the Democratic Party last night! 


A division of 



August 30, 1968 

Ninth Report on Programming for the Disadvantaged 
Ken Clark, Project Director 

From Richard K. Doan, writing in TV Guide : 

TT If Americans by the millions wind up this summer feeling that, 
next to politics, the topic they T ve been deluged with on tele¬ 
vision is black vs. white attitudes, that will be just fine 
with a lot of TV people - black and white. 

It T s exactly what they’ve hoped for: to make as many people 
as possible painfully aware of deep-seated racial biases — 
and maybe grimly determine to outgrow them. 

... it is too early to know how much and how well these TV 
programs got through to the people they needed to reach. 

The unpredictability of events in these days of joltingly 
unexpected developments rules out comfortable expectancies." 

And from Bill Greaves of BLACK JOURNAL: 

"... The black man has been kept out of the mainstream of 
American life, and the white community has got to get on 
its bicycle and try to reverse this. One thing these 
programs may do is generate enough interest by the white 
community in the black man’s concerns to help restrain 
those white morons who are throwing fuel on the black 

And Finally, Perry Wolff of CBS: 

"We’ve got to change some attitudes. We’ve shown too much 
of the Saturday night Negro; we’ve got to show the Monday 
morning Negro, the Tuesday Negro. I just don’t want to 
be fiddling when Chicago burns." 

Were you fiddling when Chicago "burned" this week? Some stations 

weren’t. Let’s talk about them. 

* * * * * 

- 2 - 

The South Carolina Educational Television Center is readying 
its new series, THE JOB MAN CARAVAN for early September airing. 

It is a cycle of eighteen half-hour programs. 

Each program will build around the "Job Man", Bill Terrell as 
host. Terrell, Black and tuned in, comes out of Memphis, is a 
graduate of Fisk University and enjoys a following as one of 
Columbia, S. C. T s top D.J. T s. 

Each week the show goes on location to tape segments in Black 
communities representing a cross section of South Carolina living. 
Large and small urban communities will be underlined with a few 
forays into rural areas. This is how it works: 

The Mobile Unit Caravan rolls into a Black community. The area 
has already been researched to determine job availabilities and 
requirements. Presence of the truck has been heavily promoted in 
advance. Loudspeakers beckon a street audience with Soul Music. 

Three Black girls — attractive and attractively dressed alike — 
are billed as "Jobettes" and they handle interview chores and pass 
out verbal and printed job information from the "Job Man Desk". 

A Black entertainer, usually known to the audience will ac¬ 
company the truck and will work with Bill Terrell — doing a few 
numbers and chatting with those who show interest in job possibil¬ 
ities. A number of interviews will be taped between Terrell and 
local unemployed citizens. 

Why the location work? Because there T s a need to wed local 
jobs to local residents, to prove success at home possible. In 
addition to the ard job information and entertainment elements 
of the remote segments, two other kinds of information will be 
available: (1) Training programs for unskilled people and (2) Ad¬ 
vice to drop-outs to get back to school, finish up and then job 
hunt with more going for you. 

This taped, remote segment will then be joined with in-studio 
elements for each program. For example, there will be a series of 
short (45 sec.) how-to-do-it bits offered by Black experts on grooming, 
how to dress and act in an interview, how to prepare a personal re¬ 
sume, how to present yourself to the company receptionist, etc. 

Then, the series expects a "name" entertainer for a single number. 

The show also plans to include success stories of young people 
usefully employed in the community, will offer information about 
testing procedures for job applications and will discuss guidance 
and training opportunities throughout the state. 

, Transitions between the three remote and three studio segments 
of each program will be low keyed with Soul Music in the background 

- 3 - 

with the video emphasizing pictures of employed young Blacks and 
supers telling what the jobs are. 

The series does not expect to work miracles. But it does 
expect to stimulate job interest, motivation and application to 
eighteen South Carolina Black communities. 

CONTACT: Henry Cauthen, General Manager 


17CVE, Richmond (Central Virginia Educational Television Corp.) 

read V for a September 16th debut. Titled 
AMERICANS FROM AFRICA:A HISTORY, the series will explore the topics 
in thirty programs. The objectives are explained this way: 

In the crisis atmosphere of today, there is an urgent need 
tor wider understanding of the Negro T s part in American history, 
life and culture. A course on educational television that traces 
the story of the Negro American from the African background to 
the present should contribute significantly to improving human 

The three major goals of the course will be: 

1* -^° ma ^ e teachers, students and other viewers aware of 

the significant role played by Americans from Africa in 
the development of this country and to provide them a 
basis for appreciation of the important contributions 
made by Negroes to American life and culture. 

2. To assist teachers to broaden their knowledge of the 
neglected subject of Negro history, thus enabling them 
to present in their classrooms a more informed analysis 
of the roots of the crisis that now confronts the nation. 

3. To provide all viewers a broader perspective for assessing 
the demonstrations and disturbances featured in news media 

Dr. Edgar Allan Toppin, Professor of History, Virginia State 
Coliege Petersburg, Virginia will teach the course which is being 
offered for graduate and undergraduate credit throughout the state. 

This is the kind of informed television we need more of. Our historv 
books have committed the sin of omission long enough. WOVE is doing 
something about that. 8 

4 -* Th ? ® eries wil1 be nationally available through the Great Plains 
National Instructional Television Library of the University of Nebraska* 

CONTACT: Mrs. Mary Anne Franklin, Program Director 

* * * * * 

- 4 - 

WFSU, Tallahassee had great success this summer with BETTER LATE - 
THAN NEVER, a series offrank and honest discussions of social problems 
directly affecting the station T s coverage area. The series was so 
well received that it has niched a permanent place in the Fall sched¬ 

Exploring such topics as junior and senior high students and 
race relations, drop-outs, civic leaders, thechirch, and the college 
student, BETTER LATE - THAN NEVER offered a vent, an outlet to anger 
and expression that could have taken less positive courses. Clayton 
A. Roehl, Program Manager, says, "WFSU-TV has found that people will 
talk if given the chance - that most people - white or black, have 
something to say - something that they consider to be important, and 
whether they say it over a medium, such as television, or with a brick 
through a store window, depends largely upon which opportunity is 
present at the time’.’ 

WFSU believes what it has learned from BETTER LATE - THAN NEVER 
and, as a consequence, is readying two new series for Fall which are 
in essence an oblique approach to racial tension programming. 

Tallahassee is the home of two universities, Florida State 
(predominantly white) and Florida A & M (predominantly black). WFSU 
now proposes to give a voice to A&M. FAMU FORUM, a weekly quarter- 
hour new program - for community audience - will be written, edited 
and presented by Florida A&M students who will also fill all produc¬ 
tion positions including that of Director. WFSU will closely super¬ 
vise production at the outset and will continue to train the produc¬ 
tion crew as the series evolves. It is hoped that those students who 
demonstrate competence will then be hired as part time staff as are 
Florida State students. 

Florida A&M T s football team is a perennial winner, in the South¬ 
east, yet the total coverage of the games is a weekly 6 minute report 
on the local commercial station. WFSU plans to produce a weekly half;* 
hour program with ASM T s football coach, hoping the show will add to 
local Black pride in showcasing this type of accomplishment through 

MAYBE TOMORROW offers a black boy and a white girl as principal 
characters in a program about children in the three to five year old 
group. The program is stated from the viewpoint of this age of inno¬ 
cence and is figuratively seen through their eyes. What is seen is 
a world in which the only race is the human race and all people are 
brothers and sisters. It is what the world could, should and will 
be at some time in the future - maybe tomorrow. MAYBE TOMORROW is 
a quiet quarter hour statement of values that can use constant re¬ 
statement. Original music scored for the program underlines the 

NO NEWS ISN’T GOOD NEWS is a one time program that studies the 
relationship between the news media and their coverage of the cause 
and effects of violence. Combining footage shot in disadvantaged 
neighborhoods with discussions between news personnel, civic leaders 
and members of the Black community, NO NEWS ISN’T GOOD NEWS will try 
to suggest how a better informed society of both Whites and Blacks 
can cooperate in the avoidance of violence. 

CONTACT: Clayton A. Roehl, Program Manager 


I want to call your attention to two peripheral ideas that may 
or may not make sense to your station: 

1. a do-it-yoursel kit originally distributed by WYES, New 
Orleans, and 

2. a project called DROPOUTS ANONYMOUS originated by com¬ 
mercial stations KFRE and KFRE-TV, Fresno, California. 

The Kit, enclosed for your information, was mailed to 5000 com¬ 
munity-minded residents of New Orleans. A much larger mailing is now 
being readied. The specifics of some of the elements are clearly 
localized, but with some changes the Kit could be utilized in any 
market. The sample is strictly FYI; it is an interesting, and rela¬ 
tively inexpensive peripheral contribution any station, large or small, 
can make to bettering human relations. 


DROPOUTS ANONYMOUS was launched in February, 1966 by KFRE and 
KFRE-TV to help young people stay in school. The initial project 
lasted one full year and was also adopted by the other Fresno, Cal. 
stations in a city-wide effort involving all broadcast outlets. 

Allow me to quote from the forward to a brochure prepared by 
the stations which best explains the purpose: 

"DROPOUTS ANONYMOUS is a continuing campaign, in announcement 
form, offering aid and moral support to high school students 
about to drop out and to older youths and even adults who never 
completed high school. 

It brings the potential dropout together with one who has 
already faced - and solved - a similar problem. 

DROPOUTS ANONYMOUS will elicit response of a depth and 
intensity that is hard to predict. Late at night, the 
fourteen-year-old who is pregnant and terrified, the 
handicapped enrolled in courses he can’t handle, the 
"A" student whose uneducated parents want her to quit 
school and bring home her weekly paycheck, the listless, 
the forgotten, the lonely, to whom the invitation to call 

6 - 

DROPOUTS ANONYMOUS is a beacon light of help, a ray of hope, 

a sign that there is .someone who will listen and help.” 

An organizing committee was formed under the Fresno Community 
Council representing schools, hospitals, Armed Forces recruiting 
offices, fraternal and civic clubs and community service organi¬ 
zations . 

That group in turn was and is supported by a much larger number 
of people on standby call. Some of these volunteers man telephones 
on regular shifts. Many are simply available for referral calls. 

These volunteers were deliberately chosen for their religious, 
racial, ethnic, economic and educational backgrounds. When the "key 
receptionist” decides that a particular committee member could com¬ 
municate more effectively, that volunteer is asked to make the con¬ 

It should be noted that because the cooperation is so broad- 
based in the community, support of local newspapers as well as 
competing radio and television stations in the market is willingly 

The KFRE and KFRE-TV role was one of initiating the project and 
of providing the publicity to keep it moving. Once started, the pro¬ 
gram was turned over to local citizens 1 groups to administer. But 
the broadcast facilities remain and integral element of the project 
through announcements and attendant publicity. 

The major appeal is to listeners and viewers who are contemplating 
dropping out of school or who have already left school. The suggestion 
is made repeatedly that they telephone for assistance "now" to a num¬ 
ber in service 24 hours a day. 

The answering service has a roster of nine outstanding civic 
leaders especially trained to counsel in this area of social problems. 
The answering service is given the personal schedule and availability 
of each of the nine leaders every day. More than one is easily reach¬ 
able at any given moment. 

Each counselor is asked first to determine the motivation causing 
the problem of the telphone caller - family maladjustment, need for 
a job, military service and so on. The counselor then encourages the 
caller to get in touch with the appropriate social agency, referring 
to a specific person and offering to set up an exact appointment time. 

A detailed brochure, which explains the entire DROPOUTS ANONYMOUS 
project with specifics of how to start and implement the program in 
your area, is available free of charge. I highly recommend that you 
write for it to: Guy Farnsworth, Community Relations Director, KFRE-TV, 
P. 0. Box 144, Fresno, California, telephone 209-268-6441. 


A similar technical facility has been made available since July 
of this year whereby anyone can call a number in twenty four hour 
service and be directed to a trained person, knowledgeable about 
drugs, their abuse, their use and where to get help. As a public 
service, this "drug-call-in” idea is really catching on in the KFRE-TV 
coverage area. Most of those receiving calls are adults, but the list 
also includes some young people who have gone the "route" with drugs 
themselves and can answer the phone with first hand knowledge of the 


NEXT WEEK: A look at sources outside the individual stations 
where programming can be found that relates to 
human relations. 

29 August 1968 

Mr. William Harley, President 
National Association of 
Educational Broadcasters 
1346 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20036 

Dear Bill: 

I have written to Ken Clark to commend the NAF.B 1 s reports 
which consider educational broadcastings growing"~invoivement~ 

w ^th ghetto communities. It is because Ken will shortly term inate 

his consultancy that I am writing. The beginnings tTuftHtelTas 

made are significant. I think it necessary that the se~Wg$nninrs 

not only be continued but be expanded. 

Strong as eloquent speeches and meaningful conferences 
may be, your special reports are the strongest possible testimony 
on our behalf in programing designed for the disadvantaged. I 
hope you will give the continuance of this project a priority 
position in your plans for the next several months. 


Edward J. Pfister 

Information Services 


be: *^en Clark 

Ray Gladfelter 





PHONE: 615-974-5376 AugUSt 28, 1968 

Mr. Ken Clark 

Project Director 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 


1346 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. 

Washington, D. C. 20036 

Dear Mr. Clark: 

I write this letter with much hesitancy for fear that my motives will be mis¬ 
understood. I realize that the popular thing today is to jump on the bandwagon and 
join in the joyous parade that is supposec* to please the great white father in Wash¬ 
ington and lead to that fountain to heal all our wounds, federal funds. (By the way, 

I notice that neither political party convention seems disposed to nominate a'dis- 
advantaged person 1 as the vice-presidential candidate. Shouldn’t they go out and 
recruit one, whether qualified or not? ) 

I have carefully read all of your reports and noted with i nterest the tremendous 
.success many sister ed ucational FM stations have experienced' in programming for 
the disadvanta ged. I am curious to know the M~radio saturation lnlhese disadvantaged 
areas. Are the stations doing this programming also doing research to determine if 
anyone is listening or even has the capability to receive the station’s programs? Do 
any of them have utilization people in the field to set up listening groups or do prepa¬ 
ration and followup for the programs? What has been the reaction of regular listeners 
when the station started to program ’soul music’, or did they have any regular listeners 

You see, my problem is this. We have spent over twenty years building up a 
particular image for WUOT and programming a certain type and quality of program. 

We have managed to survive and even to grow because of the loyal support of an ever 
increasing number of people. Suddenly we are expected to turn our backs upon these 
loyal listeners and program for a small segment of the community who can’t even 
receive the station. We have never programed popular or rock and roll music on this 
station but it seems we are remiss in our duty if we do not now program ’soul music’. 
As soon as we did this, there would be an anguished cry from our following and that 
would be the last we would ever hear from them. 



2600 Fourth Street, N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20001 

William J. McCarter 

Vice President and Genera! Manager 

August 22, 1968 

Dear Ken: 

Your reports on programing for the dis ad vant aged_ 
have been an excellent device to keep us all informed 

as to what has bee n happening in t his vi tal a rea, __and_ 

although WETA is one of the heaviest committed stations 
in this program area, we find your information m ost 

Included in your 7th report was a reprint from. 
Television Magazine which was certainly a fine capsule 
study of the activity in .this area*as well. However, 
while we're dealing with prejudice, it seems the 
prejudice we feel in ETV ffom Broadcasting and Television 
Magazine borders on the irresponsible. The program 
hours devoted to the disadvantaged in ETV far out¬ 
strips commercial television's contribution and yet 
this publisher chooses not to recognize a whole spectrum 
of the American’broadcasting industry. I would hope 
you might find the occasion to call this to Sol Taishoff's 
attention, for it is he,and he alone,who has made this 

Perhaps more important for the present, and on 
behalf of our staff, may I welcome you to public tele¬ 
vision in the Nation's Capital and invite you to come 
see us at your first opportunity. You might like to see 
our"Jobs 26" project up close. I am going to take a few 
days off beginning tomorrow. When I return. I'll give 
you a call and see if we can get to lunch. 

With kind regards. 

William J. McCarter 



A division of 



August 22, 1968 

Eighth Report on Programming for the Disadvantaged 
Ken Clark, Project Director 

"As Television viewers throughout Wisconsin watched, 
an angry young Negro shook his first at a slum land¬ 
lord one night this week, denounced the man T s ’rat- 
infested 1 buildings and threatened to punch him. 

In specific, frequently fiery terms, Milwaukee 
Negroes presented their complaints on statewide 
television programs for five nights this week 
and reached an audience they had never had before. 

Names were named and specific practices condemned 
as the Negroes assailed the Mayor, the police, the 
school board, businesses, industry and the white 
power structure in general." 

New York Times, May 5. 1968 
* * * * * 

Madison is doing as much as any station and more than most. 
The station s most recent major effort was a five day series of tele¬ 
casts titled THE INNER CORE and examined Milwaukee’s black poor. 

The programs, produced by WHA-TV were carried by WHA-TV, WMVS-TV 
and the Wisconsin State Broadcasting Service Radio Network in a 
mammoth simulcast undertaking that blanketed the state. The series 
primarily followed a discussion format with approximately twenty 
main panelists for each program. Participants also came from the 
studio audience which varied from forty to seventy persons. 

Chancellor Donald R. McNeil of University of Wisconsin Extension 
moderated. Program #1 which ran two and one-half hours long included 
a 1/2 hour filmed documentary on the basic issue of housing in the 
Inner Core. Subsequent programs each ran 90 minutes and addressed 
themselves to education, employment, consumer affairs, police-com¬ 
munity relations, and the new generation vs. the establishment. 

2 - 

Reaction from the print media was swift and laudadtorv. The 
New York Times made the ringing point that many members of the 
establishment and principal targets of the black speakers failed 
to accept the invitation to participate in the series. 

Does it all do much good? Well, Mrs. Vel Phillips, an Alderman 
appeared on the program about housing and commented that Milwaukee 
would experience violence again.. She said, "This is truly going to 
he a hot, madder summer and I plan to make it so." The day after 

Program w as televised, the Milwaukee Common Council after months 

?* ^ elay ^f*P ectedl y Passed a strong open housing ordinance proposed 
by Mrs. Phillips. v 

Chancellor McNeil felt a wide, conscience-stricken, uninformed 
audience had been reached, possibly for the first time, by black 
truth in Milwaukee. 9 y 

WHA-TV will soon make the tapes available to ETS/PS, Bloomington. 

1. "Madison Memorial to Dr. Martin Luther King” 

a 45 minute special aired the day following Dr. King’s 

2. "Madison Talk-In" 

a program running nearly 4 hours in which ghetto 
blacks told what it was like to live in Madison. 

The station chartered a bus to go to four points 
in Madison to collect participants. 

3. "Chippy Horton’s Madison” 

Chippy, a teenage black and two friends showed 
their own pictures of their neighborhood, chatted 
about life in a black ghetto and fielded phone-in 

4. "The Fourth R - Relations"- 

another live program in which any interested 
person could discuss how Madison area schools 
were facilitating or not facilitating the 
understanding of human relations. 

5. "Madison Job Talk! 1 

a phone in show with questions handled by a panel 
represariLing employment agencies and opportunity 


6. "Madison Human Interaction" 

an hour program that discussed a project in which 
minority group children from Indiana, Mississippi, 

Wisconsin and Illinois visited Madison area- host 
families. The purpose of the program: to see how 
the visits influenced race relations. 

7. Again WHA-TV teamed with the state educational 
radio system to carry live the entire session 
of public hearings conducted by the Wisconsin 
State Legislative Council Advisory Committee 
on the Kerner Report. 

The station clearly has a commitment to promote human under¬ 
standing and interaction with these and other series being planned. 

CONTACT: Thomas Rogeberg, Program Supervisor 


WVIZ-TV, Cleveland is doing an interesting follow-up to NET T s 
BLACK JOURNAL. Beginning with the initial "Journal" program, WVIZ 
followed live with BLACK JOURNAL - CLEVELAND RESPONSE. The pro¬ 
gram ,iis; hosted by a Black and black guests are determined by the 
content - art, medicine, law etc. Following discussion of local 
attitudes, the phones are opened to the home viewer. WVIZ reports 
solid response to RESPONSE. 

Next month, a new series premiers called BLACK PEOPLEHOOD. 

Written and produced by members of the Cleveland black community, 
the series will expose their interpretation and evaluation of blacks 
in politics, religion, education, science and medicine, the arts, 
labor, business, the community, civil rights, and as innovators. 

Each major topic on BLACK PEOPLEHOOD will get ah in-depth treat¬ 
ment of 10 one-hour programs. Each program has a steering committee 
from within the core city appointed by black producer Chuck Richardson. 

WVIZ has found that open cooperation with the black community 
has permitted a workable atmosphere good for everyone. The station 
is trusted because it leaves show content up to the blacks. WVIZ 
never decides who will speak on what. As a result, the station is 
"plugged in" and has no problem with feedback. 

A black cameraman and black crew chief are regular staff members, 
but there is no effort to create an all black production unit, although 
the station suggests it would not object should such a unit come about. 

Not just for blacks but for anyone interested in learning, a 
series titled WOMEN T S WORLD taught basic nutrition, child care, how 
to shop etc. Viewing sessions with follow-up discussion leaders were 

- 4 - 

set up in advance in various community centers throughout the core 
city and were well attended. Interesting sidelight: a local com¬ 
mercial station carried the series at 6:30 AM; WVIZ cleared 11:30 AM 
twice weekly. 

CONTACT: Betty Cope, General Manager 


WITF, Hershey early this year started a continuing chain reaction 
of community involvement using the station as a catalytic agent to in¬ 
vestigate and discuss human relations within the station*s coverage 
pattern. What has happened at WITF could very well become a model 
for other community-minded stations with a similar persuasion toward 
civic conscience. 

It all began with WITF*s resolve to become involved with the 
problems with ’’people left behind”. And that enormous group includes 
both blacks and whites in urban and rural ghettos, migrant workers, 
the poorly educated, the non-motivated, the under-employed - in other 
words, a great and varied segment of the population. 

Gathering together a Resource Committee of 100 representing both 
the Haves and the Have-Nots a decision was taken to act. Appropri¬ 
ately the first series was titled ”A Time to Act." 

The series lasted one month. Four 1/2 hour documentaries were 
assembled treating the ghetto in Harrisburg. Each program debuted 
on a-Monday and was replayed each evening through Thursday of that 

Sixteen mini-town meetings (a total of approximately 1000 people 
attending) were organized by the station in cooperation with civic 
groups, each with its own resource leader and an assembly of infor¬ 
mation experts. The groups watched the TV programs then took up the 
discussion as the information they had just digested applied to them 
in their own area. 

Friday nights during the month were given over by the station 
to lengthy open public forums. Forum #1 treated education, #2 dis¬ 
cussed housing, #3 took on employment and #4 summarized the entire 
month’s effort. 

WITF promoted the series heavily and provided all of the town 
meetings with brochures of background information. 

The local press maintained a curious silence until the end of 
the month, but since then has joined the adventure in human relations 
by reporting the station’s activities in full. 


Some civic authorities in Harrisburg were opposed to the series 
from start to finish* "A Time to Act" told the story as it was - a 
story of despair, deprivation and disillusion - a wretched record that 
many people would have preferred kept under the rug. 

But the story was told. Now three of the mini-town meeting groups 
have formed permanent human relations commissions in their own areas. 
Minority interests, particularly black, now look to WITF with con¬ 
fidence and trust. Accordingly, planning, execution and feedback 
have all become easier. 

Under a Ford Foundation grant, INTERACT begins at WITF in the 
Fall. The nine months of programs will especially concern the Harris- 
burg-York-Lancaster tri-city area. 

The subject matter, relevant to blacks and whites alike, struc¬ 
tured on a monthly basis goes like this: 










A Smoking Clinic 
Urban Welfare 
Is Religion Obsolete? 

The Honest Generation; youth and the 

new morality 


Human Rights and the Ghetto 
How Fine Are the Fine Arts 

Again, the station will work with local civic action groups to 
stage the mass viewing sessions with mini-town meetings backed up 
with discussion leaders, information experts and printed resource 

Each individual subject will be treated through a variety of 
formats on fifteen separate evenings. WITF reporters will attend 
the mini-town meetings and a news report of the discussions will be 
aired on the station’s 11:00 o’clock news on those evenings so the 
groups can see how others are reacting to their reactions to the se¬ 
ries. And that is a round robin of community involvement few stations 
can claim. 

In addition to INTERACT, a new series will join the WITF Fall 
schedule as a direct follow-up to A TIME TO ACT. This program, titled 
DIALOGUE IN BLACK AND WHITE is designed as a combination discussion 
and film report on what community action is resulting as aftermath to 
the earlier series. 

"Operation Headstart", a project of the Office of Economic Op¬ 
portunity, is a household word. But how many of us really understand 
how it works? WITF thought its viewers should understand. Accord¬ 
ingly, they produced a 1/2 hour program to do just that. Sixteen 
children (black and white) from the Harrisburg Headstart project came 
to the studio and were shown in a series of situations that approxi¬ 
mated the kind of pre-school experience the project itfas giving them. 


"Headstart" was staged with imagination as the kids were seen 
going through a number of activities that included singing, story 
telling, language training and art. Then a scene with two youngsters 
visiting a Nurse was shown. A puppeteer showed how his puppet was 
given an ear examination by the Nurse.* Then the Nurse examined the 
hearing of the two children (who had never even seen a Nurse, let 
alone undergo an examination). 

Next came a brief scene showing mothers of the children in group 
discussion with an 0E0 psychologist talking about discipline and other 
child-oriented problems. 

Operation Headstart is an enrichment program that gives under¬ 
privileged kids a broader vision of life around them before they start 
school. "Headstart" as done by WITF explained that program with deft 

If Hershey, Pennsylvania and WITF can do all of that and more 
one would suppose larger stations in larger cities could at least equal 
the record. How do you stack up? 

CONTACT: Lloyd Kaiser, General Manager 


Think about WHA*s, WVIZ*s and WITF T s total-community approach as 
you consider these words from John W. Gardner, Chairman of the Urban 

"I still encounter bedding Citizens who say, *Why try to 
get all those people into the act? Why don*t a few of us 
get together quietly, and try to solve some of these problems?* 

It’s a reasonable suggestion, but hopelessly old-fashioned. 

It won*t work for long in- any modern city. We won T t re¬ 
establish stability in our cities until we bring into the 
same conversation all significant leadership elements in 
the community. 

These elements in the community who are used to exercising 
power have to learn that paternalism is dead and that the 
search for solutions must be shared enterprise. All elements 
the community have to learn to collaborate rationally in 
seeking solutions, each yielding some of its pet views." 

NEXT WEEK: The South Carolina Educational Television Center 


The Alabama Educational Network 


CBS Television Stations 

A Division of Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. 

51 West 52 Street 

New York, New York 10019 

(212) 765-4321 

Dear Ken: 

It was a great pleasure seeing you and Caroline in Washington 
Monday, even though there was some "slippage" in terms of 
my "efficient arrival. " 

I found you r remarks concerning Black pro gram ming most useful, 

and I hope you will keep me posted on any innovative programming 

projects along these lines that may come to your attention in the 

future weeks. Ple ase d o send me your progr am reports, and I 

should appreciate very much your giving me any information you 

can find on the station that is planning a psychodrama series. 

I hope you and Caroline will have a marvelous experience in Nigeria 
and that we will have an opportunity to see each other at least one 
other time before you depart. 

Again, my thanks for both an enjoyable and informative visit. 

Si n r <=* t e* 1 -w 

Russell B. Barber 

Community Broadcasts 

Mr. Kenneth Clark 

1346 Connecticut Avenue 
Washington, D. C. 20036 

August 21, 1968 





Ralph E. Bowes, President Harold W. Story, Secretary 

Richard P. Gousha, Superintendent of Public Schools 
Otto A. Jirikowic, Vice-President John S. Randall 




August 20, 1968 


National Association of Educational 

1346 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. 

Washington, D. C. 20036 


Would you please send to me a copy of the "Third Report 

on Programming for the Disadvantaged" which was compiled by 

NAEB's ETS Division and which was listed in the August 1968 
Mass Media/Adult Education Bulletin. 

If there is a charge for this report, please bill the school. 

Thank you. 



^ JL . 

P. L. Kellenberger ^ 

ROMANO— (WORK) -962-6834 

Office of Education 
Washington, D.C. 20202 


Thursday, August 15, 1968 

The U.S. Office of Education announced today that its Office of Programs 
for the Disad vantag e d ha d been designated to receive and process suggestions 

complaints of poor people about the education programs. 

"I am making this designation," said U.S. Education Commissioner Harold 
Howe II, "because I hope it will help the Office of Education continue a 
dialog we began early in the summer, when we met with other agencies of the 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to hear the demands of repre¬ 
sentatives of the Poor People’s Campaign." 

At that time, members of the Campaign asked that the Department "establish 
a national structure and mechanism which provides for continuous input by 
poor black, brown, and white people in the design, development, operation and 
evaluation of all Federally funded education programs." 

The Office of Programs for the Disadvantaged will receive reports of 
problems involving education programs supported with Federal funds, review 
complaints, and seek to determine whether poor persons are being adequately 
served by these programs. General information about programs affecting the 
disadvantaged also will be provided. 

Dr. Regina Goff, Assistant Commissioner, Office of Programs for the 
Disadvantaged, promised that she and her staff would seek to provide quick 


- 2 - 



,f Perhaps more significantly," Dr. Goff said, "our information function 
should increase the competency of people at the grass roots level for 
solving their individual problems. We hope that initiation of this service 
will help to relieve the frustrations and sense of powerlessness felt by 
many of the poor and that it will demonstrate our Government’s interest in 
improving their lives." 

Dr. Goff's office will respond to correspondence and also provide 
personal interviews. Representatives of the poor will be able to obtain 
clarifying information about Office of Education programs and receive 
help with specific problems relating to programs for the disadvantaged. 

The Office of Programs for the Disadvantaged is advising all relevant 
organizations of the existence of the new service. 


Office of Education 
Washington, D.C. 20202 




Sunday, August 18, 1968 

Parents will have a larger role this year in determining the educational 
programs and services to be provided for their children under the Elementary and 
Secondary Education Act, a Federal program enacted to help educationally deprived 
youngsters, the U.S. Office of Educatiorr announced today. 

Revised criteria for projects under Title I of the Act of 1965 encourage 
increased community and parental involvement in setting the priority needs of the 
children, the Office said. 

Title III of the Act, a demonstration program designed to speed school 
adoption of educational improvements, already provides for such involvement. 

"We hear continually about the need to develop greater understanding between 
the home and the school," U.S. Commissioner of Education Harold Howe II said in 
announcing the new criteria. "The attitude of parents toward education clearly 
has much to do with the academic success of a majority of our children. But for 
poor people, lack of opportunity for full cooperation between home and school has 
increased the educational deficiencies of the deprived child. 

"There is growing evidence that parents and citizens in many areas feel 
isolated from their schools. Increased parental involvement can help correct this 
condition and simultaneously provide greater home support for school efforts in 
behalf of their children." 

The new criteria are to be applied to all new project proposals for the use 
of Federal funds provided under Title I of ESEA. 



journal available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

The ERIC system is supported by the Office of Education’s Bureau of Research 
under Title IV of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which provides for 
dissemination of research information. 

The areas of specialization of the 19 ERIC clearinghouses and their locations are: 
Adult Education, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, 13210 

Counseling and Personnel Services, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48104 
Disadvantaged, Teachers College, Columbia University,. New York, New York, 10027 
Early Childhood Education, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, 61801 
Educational Administration, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, 97403 
Educational Facilities, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706 
Educational Media and Technology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, 94305 
Exceptional Children, The Council for Exceptional Children, Washington, D.C., 20036 
Higher Education, George Washington University, Washington, D.C., 20006 
Junior Colleges, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, 90024 
Library and Information Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55404 
Linguistics, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, D.C., 20036 
Reading, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, 47401 

Rural Education and Small Schools, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New 
Mexico, 88001 

Science Education, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43221 

Teacher Education, American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 

Washington, D.C., 20036 

Teaching of English, National Council of Teachers of English, Champaign, Illinois,61820 

Teaching of Foreign Languages, Modern Language Association of America, New York, 

New York, 10011 

Vocational and Technical Education, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43212 


National Educational Radio 

1346 Connecticut Avenue N.W. Washington D. C. 20036 Telephone 667-6000 


August 27, 1968 

Fifth Report, Programs for the Disadvantaged 
Ken Clark, Project Director 

The very great effort being made by non-commercial radio to 
contribute to a betterment of human relations must be increasingly 
apparent to all of us. Local programming, tape networking, regional 
interconnected series, and now an exciting new national service — 
the work is being done at all levels, in all markets in a variety 
of ingenious ways. 

This time, let's look at an east coast station, WRVR, New York 
and a west coast station, KUOW, Seattle, and then examine the project 
they share with vast America in between — a series called NIGHT CALL 

* * * * * * 

WRVR, New York has always been up front with fresh ideas and 
imaginative efforts to include the Disadvantaged. Now in a trans¬ 
itional period, the station does offer a report on one series with 
much more to come later. 

NEW YORK: HISPANIC CITY deals with the cultural aspects of 
life in New York for Puerto Ricans.. Little known outside the city 
and not always popular in the city, the Puerto Rican ‘'question" gets 
a positive, attractive treatment in this new series. This is an 
attempt to explain Spanish Harlem to New York City listeners through 
the culture of its Spanish speaking residents. 

Starting in October, the late night hour-long show will go for 
a series of thirteen produced by Jeffery Mitchell and Richard Calhoun 

Individual programs now set will consider: 

1° Spain's cultural influence in the U. S, posed against 
an historical discussion. 

2. Contemporary Latin American Poets in New York, Part I 

3. Contemporary Latin American Poets in New York, Part II 

4. Hispanic children in the New York City School System. 

5 ° A look at "flamenco" in New York; is it authentic? 

page two 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 27, 1968 

7o Puerto Rican music in New York „ „ o a discussion 

80 Puerto Rican music in performance 

9. A discussion of Hispanic community relations 

10o A recital of Spanish poetry by several poets 

11- A solo recital of Puerto Rican poetry based in African 
sources coupled with a discussion of racial relations 
in Latin America 

12o Giants among folk and popular singers of Hispanic America 
13 „ Hispanic theater in New York 

WRVR recognized that solving the black end of the spectrum of 
racial understanding is only one answer: NEW YORK: HISPANIC CITY 
is anotherc 

CONTACT: Walter Shepard, Station Manager 

KUOW, Seattle has an enviable history in the field., I'll quote 
excerpts from a recent report by Ken Kager, KUOW Manager who believes 
that "to do a respectable programming job during and beyond our crisis 
period, an educational radio station must draw upon all four potential 
sources of material available to it-" Those sources are: (a) Non- 
Local; (b) Local Public Events; (c) Hard News; and (d) Station- 
Originated Series. The following definitions are Ken Kager's: 

" Non-Local : This category, of course, represents the best 

being done elsewhere around the nation that has been made available 
for local broadcasting. When we consider that the local station 
manager is, in fact, the "gatekeeper" who determines which programs, 
of all those available to him, are to be offered in his local com¬ 
munity, it is apparent that his decisions on such series as TRAFCO's 
"Night Call," NER's "Seeds of Discontent," and CBC's 1968 "Massey 
Lectures" have great significance to his overall planning of his race 
relations effort- 

We do not shuffle our feet, stammer, or blush in listing these 
programs as contributions.of KUOW, even though we had no hand in 
their production» Each, in its own way, is a fine series contri¬ 
buting to mutual understandingo And none would be available to the 
up-tight 1 black and white society of Puget Sound if it were not 
carried on KU0W» 

-■ Qca ^ Events: This category includes such public events 

as speeches, lectures, panels, seminars, group meetings, and conference. 

page three 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 27, 1968 

KUOW covers campus and non-campus events, sending crews as far afield 
as Portland, Oregon,, In the past year, more than 500 such special 
events have been presented exclusively in this area on KUOW. Of 
these, 75 programs, running more than 82 hours, were on the subject 
of race relations. 

I believe educational stations have a specific and special 
obligation to broadcast such programs to their local communities. We 
cannot expect the commercial stations to do this job, except for the 
occasional "spectacular." We can, and we should — for there can 
be no doubt that a single broadcast, almost regardless of the day 
or the time of day, will reach a great many more people than were 
present at the actual event. 

As a matter of policy, we report all of the racial news, 
nationally and locally, of which we are aware.. This includes the good 5 
the hopeful, and the progressive news — and the bad, the pessimistic, 
and the regressive. There is a great deal of both kinds — daily.. 

We don't editorialize, dramatize, or play down. We simply try to tell 
it like it is; but tell it. 

Station-Oriqinated Series : We believe it is entirely possible 
for a station to perform well in all of the first three categories 
of material without doing a really good job on the racial crisis. 

Each station wishing to excel and to make progress in this area 
simply must get into the field and originate some of its own unique 
programming. And it should be highly localized programming." 

Part of the scope of KUOW's race relations activities is seen 
in the program titles listed below (which I offer in full because it 
is a source of rich ideas): 


SOUL SEARCH A program co-sponsored by AMS-AWS, the Central Area 
Motivation program and the Anthropology department. Its aim 
was to inform students about racial conditions in society and 
to make them aware of their own attitudes on and off campus. 

Five programs. 

DEMOCRATIC DOMESTIC POLICIES The speaker was Norman Hill, 
Associate Director, A. Philip Randolph Institute. One program. 


Council sponsored seminar. One program, two hours in length. 

page four 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 27, 1968 

WATTS WRITERS’ WORKSHOP One program of their readings. Second 

program recorded during their appearance at Soul Search« (See 
above-) Two programs. 

Floyd McKissick, Floyd McGree, and Jimmy Garrett were the 
speakers.. Three two-hour programs- 

Council for the Advancement of Human Welfare, Inc-, and held at 
Seattle Community College- Four programs - 

SEATTLE'S RACIAL CLIMATE Alfred E- Cowles, Director of the Wash¬ 
ington State Board Against Discrimination- One program- 

RACE RELATIONS IN SEATTLE Walter Hundley, Director of the Model 
Cities Program- One program- 

URBAN FREEDOM.FOR ALL Seattle City Councilman Sam Smith addressing 
the Committee to Welcome Non-white Citizens to Ballard - 
One program- 

INNER CITY One program- 

BLACK POWER William Booth, Black Power advocate from New York- 
One program- 

URBAN RIOTS Interview with Dr. L. K. Northwood of Social Work. 
One program- 

University of Chicago- One program- 

Mark M- Krug, 

BLACK POWER Ronald Dellums of the Berkeley City Council appearing 
at a Soul Search program- One program- 

BLACK POWER Stokeley Carmichael, Former head of SNCC. One program. 

AFRO-AMERICAN HISTORY University of Washington classroom lectures 
Twenty or more programs. (See Appendix I) -Lectures. 

ounselors 1 Conference held on campus April 25 
One program- p 




e programs- 

page five 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 27, 1968 


PANEL ON PRESS AND RACE RELATIONS Taken from the Spring meeting of 
the Washington State Association of Broadcasters. One program. 

NEGRO-AMERICAN INTEREST IN AFRICA Dr, John Hope Franklin, the nation’s 
leading Negro historian; University of Chicago., 

THE NEWSMAN AND THE RACE STORY Four programs sponsored jointly by 
the University of Washington, City of Seattle, and the United 
States Department of Justice. Topics: 

The Newsman and the Race Story. Edward P. Morgan, 

Chief Correspondent, Public Broadcast Laboratory. 

Reporting the Race Story. Panel with Walter Hundley, 

Director, Seattle Model City Program; Orvill Luster, 

Executive Director, Youth for Service of San Francisco; 
and Edward J. Devine, Symposium Vice Chairman. 

Decision-Making During a Riot. Panel with Ben Holman, 
Department of Justice; Irving Margolis, WRC-TV and 
Radio, Washington, D. C.; Ron Pinkney, WOL Radio, 

Washington; Gilbert Gimble, Police Department, Wash¬ 

SEARCH FOR A HISTORY Alex Haley, author who assisted in "The Auto¬ 
biography of Malcolm X." 

INTERVIEW WITH WILLIAM PULLIAM Dissertation by, and interview with, 

Mr. Pulliam, who has an original idea for political organi¬ 
zation and a slate of candidates for each proposed office. 

Odegaard, President of the University of Washington; Dr. Brink, 
Dean of Social Work; Frank Byrdwell, Student Counsellor; and 
three students. 


WAR ON POVERTY — WHOSE WAR? Speakers: Walter Hundley, Seattle 
attorney Jim Munn and others. One program. 

THE PROBLEMS OF THE SOUTH Alabama Attorney General Richmond Flowers. 
One program. 

HASSAN HAMAD A Negro student from Egypt, attending the University 
of Washington, looks at America's race problem. One program. 

page six 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 27, 1968 

Julius Stone= One program„ 

THE TRAVAIL OF URBAN MAN Program sponsored by the University's 

Calvin Clubo Three programs dealing with the urban environment 
but emphasis on Seattle's Central Area« 

REPORTING THE SOCIAL REVOLUTION Two programs from a Sigma Delta Chi 
conference held in Portland, Oregon, 


1968 MASSEY LECTURES Five lectures delivered by the late Reverend 
Martin Luther King, Jr, in the spring of 1968« 


NIGHT CALL Produced in New York City 

GEORGETOWN FORUM Produced in Washington, D„ C. 

NAEB SPECIAL OF THE WEEK Produced in Washington, D, Co 

NER WASHINGTON FORUM Produced in Washington, Do C, 

SEEDS OF DISCONTENT Produced at Wayne State University, Detroit 

A CHANCE TO GROW Produced at WGBH, Boston, Massachusetts 


What is Negro History 

The Early African Empires 




The Slave Trade 

The Anti-slavery Movement 

The Economics of Slavery 




The Conquest of Africa 
The Colonial System 
African Opposition 




Appendix I 

page seven 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 27, 1968 

The Struggle for Independence Williams 

Post-Independence Africa Winans 

The Cultural Renaissance of Winans 

Free Africa 

Ante-Bellum South Saum 

The Emancipation Proclamation and Bestor 

"Uncle Tom’s Cabin" Stein 

The End of Non-violence Pease 
The Crisis of the Cities Barth 
The Seattle Scene Smith 

Afro-American Culture 
Special guest lecturer 

Black Power and Negro Leadership 
The Black Soldier 
The Educational System and 
the Negro 

The West Indies 


The Future 

CONTACT: Ken Kager, Station Manager 


John Hope Franklin 







Both KUOW and WRVR enthusiastically carry NIGHT CALL, a late 
night series, Monday through Friday of each week, produced by TRAFCO, 
the Television, Radio and Film Commission of the United Methodist 
Churcho Nearly sixty other radio stations are also in the line-up 
for this most unusual phone-in with a twist. 

The June 24th issue of Broadcasting carried a full page ad 
for the series that had this to say: 

"Black is a red-blooded American color. 

Perhaps if Black and White could listen with their hearts 
they could hear each other. That’s what NIGHT CALL is all 
about. It's a radio program that lets people air their views 
man to man. Color to color. Live. From phones anywhere 
in the country. 

After all, a syringe full of junk bites into Black and White 
skin with the same ruining surge. And a Black mother cries 
over her child just like a White one does. The problems 
are pretty much the same; just the characters have different 

page eight 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 27, 1968 

NIGHT CALL'S person-to-person nationwide radio hook up lets 
Black and White tell it like it is . .. each in his own words. 

NIGHT CALL lets people talk. And experts on the phone any¬ 
where in the country or world offer answers to some of the 

Having a heart-to-heart squawk. (At least it gets people 
talking. First about their problems. And eventually to 
each other.) 

... if we don't start talking to each other, we’ll end up 
shouting. And there's no telling where we'll wind up after 

NIGHT CALL crosses regional, urban and cultural boundaries. 

It can reach 4,000,000 to 7,000,000 persons nightly at the present 
time. It can secure national leadership at the right time to speak 
— to have rumor confronted, to let facts and truth speak in the 
midst of suspicion and misinformation. NIGHT CALL can be a national 
town meeting. 

These are the unique characteristics of NIGHT CALL: 

1. Through new equipment, the series enables points 
of view from all over the nation to be heard. 

2. Issues are current and are discussed live. 

3. A nationally or internationally qualified guest is fea¬ 
tured each night. The host and guest open the issues 
then the audience is invited to participate by calling 
long distance collect. The guest is often on long dis¬ 
tance telephone himself, sometimes from overseas. 

4. The series is broadcast by both Black and White stations. 

It is on AM and FM. It is on commercial and non-commercial 

5. An independent radio network is established to permit widest 
broadcast possible station acceptance. 

This series is hosted by Del Shields, a black broadcaster with 
impressive credits in both radio and television. Nelson Price is 
Executive Producer; Ben Logan produces and Edward M. Jones is 
Director of Programming. 

page nine 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 27, 1968 

Sophisticated equipment, designed especially for the series, 
permits the caller, the host and the guest to talk together in a 
normal way, automatically increasing or decreasing volume, providing 
an over-ride for the host, permitting audience callers standing by 
while waiting to get on the air to hear the program while waiting 
on their telephones, and cleaning up poor telephone lines* 

A number of breaks are built into the program to allow for 
commercials or PSA's. Or PSA's are inserted by NIGHT CALL for those 
stations wanting a complete package* 

The series, on the air as of early June originates in the WRVR 
studios in New York at 11:30 PM (the station provides facilities; 
it does not produce) and works back to 8:30 PM on the West Coast* 

For more information write to: 475 Riverside Drive, Suite 420 

New York, New York 10027 

or phone: (212) 663-8900 


KFRE, Fresno, California - a commercial station with an 
idea they are giving away called DROPOUTS ANONYMOUS* 

KSLH, St. Louis, emphasizing programs for children of the 
Disadvantaged * 

WLIB, Harlem, suggesting specific action to ease the ghetto 
crisis with WHAT MUST BE DONE* 

N A E B 

National Educational Radio 

1346 Connecticut Avenue N.W. Washington D. C. 20036 Telephone 667-6000 



August 20, 1968 

Fourth Radio Report, Programs for the Disadvantaged 
Ken Clark, Project Director 

Have any of you found that some of your programming for, by or 
about minority interests has prompted attacks on you or your station? 
Don T t ever feel you are alone if that has been the case. It is 
common. And will probably become more so as this kind of work con¬ 

John F. White, President of NET not so long ago discussed this 
issue in regard to public television. Substitute the word "radio" 
and what he says is just as applicable to you: 

"If public television is ever to become a major force 
in our national life — if it is to achieve stature, 
public respect, and public support — it will do so 
not because we were quiet and balanced, but because 
we spoke truth and spoke it boldly and performed a 
valuable public service not available in any other 
place. Don T t tell me there are those who would 
drive you out of town if you did this. I know 
there are those who will try. 

But the simple question is: Will we do what we 
believe is right or will we do only what we know 
we can do without ruffling feathers? If we do what 
we believe is right, and do it well, I don T t think 
they can drive us out of town. Now is the time for 
conscience to rule our actions; it is not the time 
for expediency or even for compromise. You cannot 
compromise with prejudice or ignorance or apathy." 

KFJC, Los Altos Hills (Foothill College) is not about to com¬ 
promise. Far from it. Two weekly series are now in the hard plan¬ 
ning stage and when implemented promise to introduce not only a 
bright new image for the station, but provide a solid public ser¬ 
vice as well. Untitled at the moment, both series are being sup¬ 
ported by the local minority groups for whom they are intended. 

All daylight hours during each weekend will be devoted to the two 
series, one with a premise based in. legal aid, the other in the 
area of consumer education. 


Program #1, now scheduled as a Saturday entry will aim toward 
the black community, particularly the East Palo Alto sector. Recog¬ 
nizing that so many black listeners are in ignorance about their 
legal rights, KFJC proposes to offer a series of legal aid experts, 
invited to sit in at the station and take phone-in and write-in 
questions from the listeners. The format will, however, be loose. 
Talks, discussions, occasional interviews and considerable soul 
music will make Saturday daytime listening something new just for 
the community T s Blacks. Not only will they have their "own” service, 
but they can take pride in knowing they have a genuine voice on a 
station that enjoys considerable listenership. 

Program #2, the other half of this program adventure hits for 
the Spanish-American population. Again, an all day series on Sundays, 
consumer education will be the significant element. Again, there 
will be experts to handle the letter and phone-in questions. Spanish- 
Mexican music will be emphasized. And all talk, be it interview, dis¬ 
cussion or question-answer or announcements will be heard in Spanish. 

The above listed series are already being talked up in black and 
Spanish-American communities and when they hit the air should have 
loyal followings. 

KFJC, always an imaginative outfit, also is now piecing together 
the superstructure for an "open community forum". In this series, 
the Disadvantaged will become "active participants" in a group set¬ 
ting in airing the problems of poverty and in discussing with recog¬ 
nized community leadership the methods and the programs through which 
they can overcome their problems. Not only will the Disadvantaged 
give voice to their feelings, but hopefully will also find some 
stimulus that, if sustained, can really affect their lives. 

Some topics now under consideration for this series include: 

"What can we do about inadequate housing in our 

"What can we do about the lack of adequate medical 

"What can we do about up-grading education and 
improving our schools?" 

KFJC isoperating on the premise that where the availability for 
dialogue exists, there often is an avoidance of violence, a feeling 
of helplessness and a tacit acceptance of worthlessness. 

CONTACT: Stuart Roe, Station Manager 

* * * * *.v 


WKCR, New York (Columbia University) is working under a Ford 
Foundation grant to ready a sixteen program series for Fall built 
around a forum idea. The pilot, done this summer, shows real promise. 

Titled URBAN FORUM it will rely heavily on ghetto dwellers to 
tell it like it is. Discussions, interviews and poetry reading will 
be interspersed to examine the many faces of Black poverty in New York. 
Poverty of opportunity, poverty of motivation, poverty of basic knowl¬ 
edge ... all this will be a part of the series. 

COLUMBIA FORUM, is an on-going series that tackles current issues 
through lectures and a question-answer format. One hour programs are 
heard twice each week and consider such topics as social movements, 
urban riots, violence and protest. 

Coming up soon will be COLUMBIA PRESS CONFERENCE with a guest 
expert featured. Though not always related specifically to the ghetto 
issues, the series will include appearances by James Farmer and other 
minority leaders. It is planned as a factual series about people 
highly involved in current events. 

As of the moment there are four Blacks on the WKCR staff ... 
performing as DJ T s (2), one Engineer-Producer combination and one 

CONTACT: Roger Berkley, General Manager 

17CBE, Columbus (Columbus Public Schools): has been airing a 
series of fifteen minute programs twice a week for the last three 
years. It is a modest idea and done without fanfare. But the con¬ 
tribution of PROJECT AIM to improving the lot of minority youngsters 
in Columbus is incalculable. 

Devised to help stem a severe drop-out rate among high school 
students, PROJECT AIM hits them earlier when they are still in junior 
high. The series is cased in a simple format. On each program a 
Black who has achieved in his own life is invited to submit to inter¬ 
view and discussion on how he or she "made it" ... the route they 
took to success, including the hardships. They also describe in 
full just what their profession or occupation is all about. They 
talk as Black people who entered their chosen work with that mark 
against them. The implication is obvious. If they can do it, so can 
their young listeners. 

The host-interviewer is a black high school student, chosen by 
his school and carefully coached by VJCBE prior to joining the series. 

A series of "test interviews" were set up in which WCBE staff members 
willingly submitted to being "guests" while the young broadcaster-to- 
be sharpened his approach. 

- 4 - 

The Host makes a point of visiting with his guests well before 
air time, preferably at their place of work. This not only gives the 
Host confidence, it unearths a richer vein of information. 

Reaction from the estimated six thousand junior (and a few senior) 
high students who regularly listen to the series has been encouraging. 
Most of them didn T t know the Black guests prior to the series, and 
it is a revelation to them to realize there are that many successful 
Blacks in their own city. 

What kind of positions do the guests hold? Well, for example, 
some of those who have appeared are a Minister, Hat Maker, an Attorney, 
a Judge, a Policeman, a Mason, an owner of a Paint and Wallpaper com¬ 
pany, the Assistant Fire Chief, an Assistant to the Governor, a Car 
Dealer, the Supervisor of the Department of Music for the Columbus 
Schools, the Assistant Director of Public Affairs at a local commer¬ 
cial television station, a Senior Secretary, a Dentist and a Grocer. 

The series discusses the qualifications required for various 
types of work and gives hints and tips to students in school today 
as to possible future opportunities in those areas. 

Local teachers are high on the series; they are given a brief 
in advance to prepare the students for the interview. In many cases, 
the radio guest subsequently has been invited to various school class¬ 
rooms to meet personally with the students and expand his background 
for them. 

Many local civic groups are helpful to WCBE in finding guests 
for the series (e.g. the Urban League, the Ministerial Association, 
local Businessmen T s Association, etc.) . 

Remember the statistics of this series: two guests each week 
for a period of three years ... and the series shows no signs of 

WCBE is reluctant to take much credit for lowering the Columbus 
schools drop-out rate. But the rate has dropped noticeably since the 
series went on the air. 

For you station managers who can T t afford to get into the move¬ 
ment just now in an expensive way, consider PROJECT AIM. It is a 
remarkable little series that has the cooperation and interest of 
students, teachers, parents, school administrators and local civic 
business and profession leaders. With that kind of backing for the 
past three years, the series has to be accomplishing something worth¬ 

CONTACT: John H. Sittig, Director Radio, Television and 

Audio Visual Education 

* * * * * 


WBAA, Lafayette (Purdue) is stressing an approach toward 
assisting poor people in general in their area. The drawing boards 
are busy at the moment with a planned series (1/2 hour weekly) which 
will address itself to basic questions: 

How do I interview for a job? 

What is a curriculum vitae and how do I put it 

Whom do I approach for a job? 

How do I learn about jobs in the first place 
that are right for me? 

What do I look for in trying to find a house? 

How can I finance the purchase of a home? 

How do I shop economically? 

Where can I find general consumer education 

WBAA is working with the local Human Relations Council on this 
project and it is hoped that some of the very talented and vocal 
Black students at Purdue can be encouraged to participate. 

Next summer, the station anticipates launching a series of 
radio workshops for junior and senior high school students in which 
basic radio skills will be taught with an emphasis given on on-air 
production experience. 

CONTACT: John R. DeCamp, Manager 

* * * * 


WRVR, New York ready for Fall with "New York - Hispanic 
City", a series relating Hispanic culture of the city T s 
Puerto Ricans to English speaking listeners. 

"Night Call", produced by the Television, Radio and 
Film Commission of the Methodist Church - a national 
phone in series that is one of the freshest ideas to 
hit radio in years. 


A division of 



August 16, 1968 

Seventh Report on Programming for the Disadvantaged 

Ken Clark, Project Director 

John F. White, President of NET speaking: 

"If public television is ever to become a major force in our 
national life -- if it is to achieve stature, public respect, 
and public support - -it will do so not because we were quiet 
and balanced, but because we spoke truth and spoke it boldly 
and performed a valuable public service not available in any 
other place. Don't tell me there are those who would drive 
you out of town if you did this. I know there are those who 
will try. 

But the simple question is: Will we do what we believe is 
right or will we do only what we know we can do without ruffling 
feathers? If we do what we believe is right, and do it well, 

I don't think they can drive us out of town. Now is the time for 
conscience to rule our actions; it is not the time for expendiency 
or even for compromise. You cannot compromise with prejudice 
or ignorance or apathy. " 

* * * sjc # 

For this report, I'm including a reprint from TELEVISION which tirr41 l 
give you a good cross section view of what our commercial bretheren are up to. 
The national picture is excellent. They are also on the train. 

* * * * 

WGBH, Boston jumped into this thing a long time ago. The momentum 
is still there. 

ITEM: "Volunteer -- Why Bother? zeros in on the tendency of many 
young people today to withdraw from society rather than actively try 
to change the things they reject. The program begins with an excerpt 
from an earlier program, "Lettvin Tuned In" which M. I. T. Professor 
Jerome Lettvin urging his young audience to "reach out" not "drop out. " 

- 2 - 

The program then turns to students from colleges in the 
Greater Boston Area who tell of their work in the ghetto and 
express fear that they may be contributing to the black backlash 
by imposing white middle-class values on the very people they 
are trying to help. 

ITEM: The big gun at WGBH at the moment is "Say, Brother. " 

Harlem native Jim Boyd who produces, sees the show as a sort 
of TV newspaper where the positive constructive events and ideas 
of Boston's black community can be reported with accuracy and 

The program has twin thrusts: (1) to make the Boston blacks aware of 
themselves in a positive way and (2) to make the Boston whites focus more clearly 
on a people and a part of their own city they know so little about. 

Televised in color, the hour-long program offers news of the black 
community, a billboard of cultural and social events in the area, Afro-American 
history, and entertainment. 

Bryant Rollins, a former Boston Globe reporter and Bay State Banner 
editor who is now with the Urban League handles the news. Sarah Ann Shaw, 
who trains VISTA volunteers, reports on political events and activities in the 
community and chats with community personalities, reaching for the real views, 
the real attitudes. And 17 year-old Stewart Thomas covers the Roxbury and 
environs beat from the teenager's point of view. 

The Afro-American history and culture segments are prepared by 
Roosevelt Weaver of Hilltop House, Marcus Mitchell, Director of the Negro 
History Museum in Boston, Dr. Adelaide Hill who heads Boston University's 
African Studies Program plus a variety of guest experts. 

Is it working? 

Yes, if calls and letters from the white community and a vocal awareness 
in the black community mean anything. The audience is growing, there is no 
question of that. It's the kind of show on which anything can happen. In color, 
viewers find 50 to 75% of the features going live. 

News and comment, entertainment (mostly local but including outside 
professionals such as James Brown) and discussions by representatives of black 
community organizations make the weekly hour slot a thing to reckon with. 

Staffing is Black for film cameramen, the audio engineer, production 
assistants, the associate director and three associate producers. . . all whom are 
pa id. Of course it's controversial. For Boston. . .white and black, it's a whole 
new world. SAY, BROTHER is important to all of us who, in our own halting 
way, still believe in the dream. 

CONTACT: Hartford N. Gunn, General Manager 


WNDT, New York is about to launch a pioneering effort that someone 
should have thought of doing years ago. The series, funded by a Ford Foundation 
grant, is titled SOUL! Based freely on the "Tonight" concept of provocative 
discussion and swinging entertainment, the program will be by Blacks for the 
two million plus Blacks who live in New York City. 

Co-Producers of the series are Ellis Haizlip, a Black who has been 
co-producing American shows in Europe for the past five-years, including 
"Black Nativity, " "Trumpets of the Lord, " and "The Amen Corner. " His 
white counterpart: Michael Landwehr who comes to WNDT from WNEW-TV 
where he spent four years as special projects producer. 

Anyone familiar with the New York scene will recognize the name of 
Reuben Phillips, former Music Director of the famed Apollo Theater. Mr. 

Phillips is putting together a combo for the series made up of some of the jazz 
and rock guests of the city (and they will be mainly black). 

Auditions are underway to find a host and talent. Singers, dancers, 
drama groups, comedians. . . .the full spectrum of entertainment will be recruited 
for what has to be one of the most exciting and ambitious experiments of this 
or any other season. If I may hazard a personal guess, it won't be long before 
the commercial networks imitate this idea in one form or another. But WNDT 
was there first. We can be proud that "one of ours" had the courage and the 
imagination to try this. 

WNDT has had an integrated staff for years. Blacks there function as 
producers, production assistants, cameramen, associate directors, secretaries 
and in development. 

A fair number of telephone contacts and letters tell the station programming 
for the Disadvantaged does reach the inner city. TALKING BLACK, discussed 
in an earlier program report, helped turn the station on. Viewer response 
indicated that an intelligent, sensitive and professional effort at digging into the 
black community was needed, applauded and appreciated. More in this direction 
seemed obvious. SOUL! is WND'l's response. Watch for more on this series. 

It could be a milestone. 

CONTACT: Christopher Lukas, Director of Cultural Programs 

# * * # 

WCNY, Syracuse is a relatively young station that was determined to be 
involved from the beginning. The Syracuse "inner city" comprises approximately 
20, 000 Blacks and it is within the context of that potential viewership that the 
station has made its programming moves for the Disadvantaged. 

Over a year ago WCNY worked out a pilot project with the city schools 
to take on a group of students teetering on the dropout precipice. Over an eight 

- 4 - 

week period, the youngsters were trained to be Audio-Visual Aids. They learned 
about graphics, the use of tape recorders, film projectors and television receivers. 
This was strictly a voluntary thing after school. The participating schools reported 
that the trainees, after returning to school, not only performed well with their 
new technical skills but in general improved in their academic work. WCNY 
hopes to start a new similar cycle of training soon. 

The station is also investigating the feasibility of an internship program 
for high school students. This would be an on-going activity in which a selected 
group of promising students would be trained in communications skills through a 
combined program of instruction and on-the-job training. 

One of WCNY's most interesting projects to date was THE VISUAL 
GENERATION, a 90 minute special funded by the Carnegie Corporation of New 
York in a grant to the Eastern Educational Network. The Executive Producer 
was Art Irons of the Syracuse station staff. 

The program gave disadvantaged kids in various parts of the country an 
opportunity to look at their own lives and times. Projects in six cities were 
undertaken, then the films put together by WCNY. 

1. In Orono, Maine, the youngsters filmed an essay showing 
the differences between urban and rural life for the poor. 

2. In San Francisco, the Performing Arts Workshop, a 
theatrical group working with the Disadvantaged was examined. 

3. Pittsburgh stressed the performance of a high school jazz 

4. Syracuse filmed a play written by a 16 year old girl. 

5. New York City took up life in a ghetto. 

6. Hershey, Pennsylvania offered a slide study (with voice over) 
of one young man's family. 

The resulting production told a great deal about not only the young film 
makers themselves but about their own unique view toward life. 

BLACK ON BLACK is a production in the planning stage. Geared for 
the black community of Syracuse, the hour special once each month will feature 
two hosts: (1) Ellwood Berry, a former teacher who currently published a black 
newspaper " The Liberated Voice" ; and (2) Miss Eleanor Russell, a 17 year old 
high school senior who has been active in Youth Opportunity Unlimited theatrical 

Utilizing entertainment, the series will follow a loose format to include 
intensive discussions on local issues. Job opportunities plus local and national 

- 5 - 

news of Blacks will be pushed. 

WCNY reports problems undoubtedly shared by stations in comparable 
situations: (1) It is a U in a V market; (2) Motivation of the inner city viewers 
is difficult to stimulate; and (3) Getting the "word" to the viewers about the 
station programming is not simple. However, viewer response already tapped, 
suggests WCNY is clearing the hurdles and probably has the most effective 
station-inner city relationship in Syracuse. 

CONTACT: Arthur Paul, Assistant General Manager for Program 

* * * * 

WYES, New Orleans explains the use to which it expects to put a recent 
Ford Foundation grant in terms of what it calls CRT (Community Related 

CRT is an approach toward solid integration of community activity and 
interest with the best resources of the public television station. With the funds, 
WYES has planned four new series to go in the Fall. Here is how it looks at 
the moment: 

1. EQUALTIME stresses a human relations view of the news. 

One hour in length, to be aired once each week, EQUALTIME 
film cameras will select an issue or event that will probably 
not receive intensive coverage by any other station. On the 
program, the film insert will visualize the news, then a panel 
of experts will make the thing come alive. 

EOUALTIME's first topic: the opening of the New Orleans 
city school system. What is the progress toward an integrated 
school system fourteen years after the landmark Supreme 
Court ruling? That is the issue and WYES hopes to take it 
apart and see what makes it run in an instructive,, informative 

On EQUALTIME and the other two new weekly series, a panel 
of experts will be augmented by a studio audience that will be 
urged to ask questions. In addition, a viewer phone-in will 
be a permanent feature. Through the three avenues of 
examination, the topics treated should get a pretty fair shake- 

2. THE NEIGHBORHOOD SHOW, another weekly, is planned for 
a two hour format. This will be live. It will be remote, with 
an emphasis on ghetto visits. The show will be relatively 
unstructured letting the place tell its own story in terms of 

- 6 - 

what has currency and significance. Certainly all of the 
OEO Action Centers will be visited (there are six such 
centers in Orleans Parish). Sports, money management, 
shopping tips, housing projects, hospital problems, and 
a man-in-the-street are all possibilities for this live 
project which will put the cameras where the action is and 
let the story grow. 

3. COFFEE HOUSE will run an hour and one half. It is 
explained as an informal "happening" by, for and about 
university and high school students. Current events, word 
association exercises, poetry readings and music will all 
"happen" in a staged coffee house atmosphere. While not 
slanted particularly toward the Disadvantaged, problems of 
the poor as well as creative works of ethnic groups will be 

4. MY NEW ORLEANS is projected as a monthly essay combining 
film, stills and words in an impressionistic view of the city. 
Each program will be created from the point of view of a 
different individual or group. Very definitely the ghetto 
dweller's "mind's eye" picture of New Orleans will be a 

part of the series. 

CONTACT: W. S. Hart, General Manager 

KCET., Los Angeles is back in the report again, this .time with a program 
about a.white drama student who helps' black teenagers. The 30 minute docu¬ 
mentary produced by KCET's assistant director of programming Gordon Hoban 
with a grant from ETS, tells the story of Steve Kent, a U.S.C. drama student 
who built the "Watts Towers Theater V/orkshop" from a crowd of Negro teenagers. 

The sensitive program shows Kent working with his group in elementary 
"theater games" devised to allow participants to work from the inside out, acting 
out their attitudes, opinions and loves and hates about life. Slowly the group of 
society's misfits coalesce as a group. Mutual dependence, a sense of rhythm and 
time and a new power of concentration appear. 

Impx*ovisationai skits based on the teenagers own ghetto background 
illustrate their theatrical progress. The program is beautifully photographed 
by Les Blank who eventually became accepted as a member of the group and, 
along with his camera rolling, played the "games" that reveal a frightening, 
lonely, desperate world most of us know little of. 

CONTACT: Charles Allen, Program Director 

■>)i >;< i\i >:< 



The Alabama Educational Network stepping aboard with a series 
on the rural disadvantaged. 

WITF, Harrisburg explaining one of the "Headstart 1 ' programs. 

KEBS, San Diego, emphasising programs for the Mexican-Americans 
as well as Blacks but with a local twist. 

WKA, Madison continuing a long history of programs for the dis¬ 
advantaged with "The Inner Core", a stark revelation of life in 
Milwaukee's ghetto. 

Plus a "How to Fight Prejudice Do-It-Yourself Kit" provided by 
WYES, New Orleans. 

* * * # 

And from John V/. Gardner, Chairman, The Urban Coalition: 

"Our society is in serious trouble. It is a frighteningly complex 
society. It is undergoing extraordinarily rapid change. It is 
afflicted with the gravest dissension and internal conflict. If we 
are to gain command of the problems that threaten to overwhelm 
us, we are going to need all the talent, ail the leadership that the 
nation can command. 

This is not a time for business as usual. This is a time to think 
and act imaginatively and responsibly to hold this nation together 
and move it toward a constructive future. " 

National Educational Radio 

1346 Connecticut Avenue N.W. Washington D.C. 20036 Telephone 667-6000 


August 12, 1968 

Third Report, Radio Programs for the Disadvantaged 
Ken Clark, Project Director 

William A. Emerson, Editor of the Saturday Evening Post, exam¬ 
ined the issue that relates to your work and mine in the August 10, 

1968 issue. 

"The ghetto is a container—fx>r" the condensing and 
storing of undesirable human beings» We are put¬ 
ting these people in vertical filing cabinets cal¬ 
led tenements, and we are literally filing them away, 
stacking them up as high as we can make them climb. 

Around Harlem and all of the other ghettos, we have 
dug a cultural moat so deep and treacherous, we have 
built a wall of deprivation so slippery and high, 
and we have strung around them a barbed-wire thicket 
of prejudice so forbidding that even those who keep 
the will to escape need a terrible bit of luck to 
manage it." 

"People-filing"o 0 oa pretty appalling concept. But does the 
truth of it apply to your community? And what are you as a broad¬ 
caster committed to the public interest doing about it? 

WPLN, Nashville may surprise you. Caring, and acting on that 
concern since 1962, the station operates with a fully integrated staff 
— not token — fully integrated. With one exception all black employee 
come from the ranks of the "disadvantaged." Some were trained on the 
job under the Youth Corp Project and then employed. The exception is 
an announcer who had ten years experience in commercial broadcasting 
before joining WPLN. All were employed because they had something to 
contribute — not because they were black. 

WPLN points to NASHVILLE FORUM as its most notable series. 

Oriented toward local attitudes and actions, the series has dealt 
with police-community relations, race relations, housing and the 
poverty program. Whenever possible, leaders of both sides of an 
issue were faced with each other across the WPLN microphone. Often 
for the first time. That wasn’t a solution in itself, but WPLN had 
started the dialogue. That in itself was accomplishment. 

A shorter series, "1-40" told of the human displacement problem 
caused by the proposed routing of new Highway Interstate 40 on the 
periphery of Nashville. Actual location of the highway is being fought 

page two 

Program for the Disadvantaged 
August 12, 1968 

in the courts, but in the meantime, a number of low income people who 
have lived in the area most of their lives have been bumped» What 
does this uprooting do to people socially, economically and psycho¬ 
logically? That’s what the series was all abouto A Fisk University 
professor, Dr- F» Coles, Director of the Race and Poverty Research 
Project at the school moderated. 

Currently, the station is into replays of a twenty-six part 
series titled "Books in Black Print," a discussion-commentary format 
about books by Negro authors= (The series was originally produced by 
commercial outlet WBOL with some background help from WPLNo) 

CONTACT: Alvin L* Bolt, Station Manager 

KBPS, an arm of the Portland, Oregon Public School System has 
concentrated, appropriately enough, on young people. 

ITEM: The station took a soft sell approach and produced a phone 

in for teenagers in the 7th and 8th grades from nine separate schools 
in disadvantaged areas of the city u Called "Teen Line," the tele¬ 
phoned questions were answered by a rotating panel of other teens. 

Low Key? Yes» But remember this was the first time these youngsters 
were given a public voice., It could be that in the long run, that 
fact alone will prove more valuable than half a dozen adult-oriented 
programs „ 

ITEM: A series was put together using books written by well- 

known authors about individuals who had been challenged in life with 
all kinds of handicaps•„.and who overcame theim The stories were 
adapted by Oregon's leading juvenile writers and dramatized by casts 
of professionals who volunteered to do the job* The stories, geared 
to juveniles in language that made sense to them, is reported to have 
scored heavily with listeners. 

ITEM: KBPS was the only station in the city to tape a two-hour 

"Soul Assembly" from a nearly all Negro high school„ Again, the kids 
found a communication outlet for the ideas and the music that was 
meaningful to them* 

ITEM: Then the station tried an experiment on an in-school basis 

letting disadvantaged kids broadcast their own creative writing. Pat¬ 
ricia Swenson, KBPS Manager says the series really was popular with 
the nine-school hookup. The inner city language was not always intel¬ 
ligible to other listeners, but for the youngsters an incredible 
thought started to occur.. . „ someone cared. 

CONTACT: Patricia L« Swenson, Station Manager 

page three 

Program for the Disadvantaged 
August 12, 1968 

Somehow, there ought to be time at the November convention to 
hear the story in detail of Milwaukee's WHA and its INNER CORE week of 
multi—media, saturation broadcasting. Target: the plight of the 
180,000 plus minority race residents of Milwaukee's ghetto neighbor¬ 
hoods o 

Ralph Johnson, General Manager, kicked off the prelude in 
November of last year* Going out into the black community, he recorded 
a great number of conversations, letting the people themselves tell it 
like it iso That initial series ran every Sunday afternoon with a 
repeat on Thursday evenings through the end of April. 

On Monday, April 29 of this year, the intensive broadcasts began, 
a cooperative venture with WHA—TV and WMVS—TV that lasted through 
Friday, May 3rd. 

Beginning at 8:00 AM, excerpts of the earlier "conversations" 
were aired on the twelve station radio network (which covers the 
state). Every hour throughout the day a different program piece 
was played, most in the conversation format, but also discussions and 
readings by Dick Gregory were heard. These daytime segments varied in 
length, and listeners to any of the radio stations in the statewide 
hookup could find something every hour. 

At 8:30 in the evening, the simulcast began. A studio audience, 
primarily black, and numbering from 25 to 60 persons, came to the. 

WHA-TV studio, prepared to fire the hard questions at a panel chaired 
by Chancellor of the University of Wisconsin Extension, Donald R. 
McNeil. Panel guests included representatives of the "establishment" 
...a true cross section of successful citizens of Milwaukee. The. 
Mayor's office, invited to send a representative to all five evening 
panels, declined after Program No. 1. Businessmen, civic leaders, 
educators, NAACP people, realtors, insurance brokers all came in their 
turn and listened as Milwaukee's poor spoke of a very different sort 
of life in their city. 

The first evening program ran hours; the remaining four went 
to 90 minutes. All were factual, open, spirited and revealing. After 
initial remarks by the invited guest experts, audience members (and 
they changed every night) came forward to a number of floor mikes down 
front to start the questioning. Each evening was devoted to a 
separate primary topic such as housing and education. An effective 
peripheral touch was added in the series' theme music (piano and bass) 
composed by a black student at the University and played by him and a 
white foreign student from Norway. 

The purpose of the series was to show "What it means to be Black 
and live on Milwaukee's North Side." Did it all succeed? Here are 
excerpts from only a few of the printed reactions: 

page four 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 12, 1968 

"The day after it was televised the Milwaukee 
Common Council after months of delay unexpectedly 
passed a strong open housing ordinance...Many 
Negroes said they believed the program had some¬ 
thing to do with this action." 

The New York Times , May 5 

"Though it had some weaknesses, the series impres¬ 
sed this viewer as by far the most ambitious, pro¬ 
vocative and engrossing local TV seen in Milwaukee,," 

The Milwaukee Journal , May 12 

"The main purpose of this program was to make aware 
the conditions existing in the inner city to those 
outside the inner city.. In our opinion, this goal 
was achieved . . . 

The Milwaukee Star , May 8 

"Statements made by inner core residents and 
students sometimes were outrageous, possibly 
libelous, and nitpicking, but often were elo-' 
quent expressions in everyday folk language, of 
how real people feel in real situations«" 

The Milwaukee Sentinel , May 4 

The reviews go on and on. It is difficult to find anything but 
admiration and support for what the Wisconsin State Journal called 
"o 00 a great service to the state by giving a first hand impression of 
the black view of the racial turmoil." 

And let’s not forget the listeners, the people who caught The 
Inner Core on radio only. 

"Radio at its best! ...thanks to the combined ef¬ 
forts of many in your organization we have had the 
opportunity to ’walk for a week in the shoes of 
our black neighbors’ 0 " 

"-“After the first hour I felt ashamed of myself 
for getting angry about missing an hour of music 
when these people were missing out on life." 

"You have done us, Milwaukee, the state, a great 

"It is so easy to listen to the things we like to 
hear / but we need to also hear some things we don’t 
like, and hopefully take some constructive action." 

page five 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 12, 1968 

"Your Inner Core series was enlightening, fright¬ 
ening, hopeful and sado I hope you had the widest 
possible listening audiencec" 

"I wish there were some way to convey to the public 
officials of Milwaukee the concern of many of the 
citizens of the state about their failure to co¬ 
operate in the production of such a program." 

Now available from WHA-Radio, Radio Hall, The University of 
Wisconsin, Madison 53706, tapes of the following: 

■'The Inner Core — City Within a City" 

h Programming April 29 - May 3 
2o Sound tracks from the five simulcasts 

"Conversations from the Inner Core" 

lo Half-hour tapes of the series from 
November - April 

Ralph Johnson, Executive Director of both series rocked many of 
you with his "Conversation" tape at last year’s convention,. Brace 
yourselveso The material that followed and grew ultimately into 
"The Inner Core — City Within a City" both sears and soars. 

CONTACT: Ralph W. Johnson ; General Manager 

# * * * 

WAUP, Akron, working with the University of Akron’s Center for 
Urban Studies, has produced a number of programs that are available 
for distribution: 

A lecture by Dr„ Daniel P„ Moynihan, Director of 
the Center for Urban Studies of Harvard and M„IoT«, 
called "City in Chassis" (@ 24:00) 

A Press Conference held by Dr„ Moynihan on the day 
of his lecture, December 6, 1967» (30:00) 

A lecture/panel discussion with Dr. James Conant 
of the Lemberg Center of Violence at Brandeis 
University; with response from a panel of prominent 
academic, government ; and civic leaders from the 
Akron area- November 29, 1967 (60:00) 

page six 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 12, 1968 

A lecture by Whitney Mo Young, executive director 
of the National Urban League Inc* on January 28, 1968 
- "The Current Dilemma: Challenge and Opportunity<> " 


A News Special on the dedication of the "Old Stone 
School" (c,1870) to be used by Akron elementary 
school students in studying history, (60:00) 

A series of 15 half-hour programs, "Along the Ohio 
Canal", compiling the largest available amount of 
audio material about the canals and their subsequent 
developing of the state of Ohio, by use of interviews, 
music, and poetry. This series discusses historical, 
social, and current influences of the canal on the 
state and vice-versa. 

In addition to the foregoing, WAUP recently completed what it 
refers to as a half-hour "audio-montage documentary" titled "A Disease 
....Called Venereal" a program that was not only carried by WAUP but 
by all other radio stations in the city; now there is even external 
interest in replays of the program by other Ohio city stations. 

Working with the local Akron Community Action Council, the 
station is moving toward a solid involvement at a variety of levels, 
WAUP is now at the discussion stage of: 

using the facilities of WAUP for administrative 
contact and discussion with CAC professional and 
volunteer workers; 

preparing courses on Sociology, psychology, etc, 
for these workers; 

utilizing the facilities as a vehicle for local 
talent in the underprivileged areas; 

preparing documentaries for the "white ghetto" and 
our own "intellectual ghetto" concerning "what’s 
happenin' baby" for these communities; 

producing teen-age medicine shows; cooking, home 
budgeting, and baby care shows; 

creating a "job market" program with the Ohio Em¬ 
ployment Service; 

providing training opportunities in broadcasting 
for the disadvantaged; 

page seven 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 12, 1968 

providing entertainment material for pre-school 
children, and for high school students (a Friday 
or Saturday "dance party" idea perhaps); 

and otherso 

With that many good ideas spinning in Akron, we'll hear more 
from WAUP» 

CONTACT: David A» Lieberth, Program Director 

* * # # 


WKCR, New York gearing up for fall production on its Ford 
funded series, URBAN FORUM* 

WBAA, Purdue University working with the local Lafayette 
Human Relations Council on upcoming program plans which con¬ 
cern not only blacks but all poor people in that area* 

WCBE, Columbus keeping the dropout level low with PROJECT 

KOAC, Portland, giving a voice to Portland's Albina district 
blacks * 

It's a two way street according to Dr* Robert L* Hilliard, 
addressing the April Seventh Annual College Conference of the Inter¬ 
national R'dio and Television Society* 

"We.*-all of us..oneed the education that television 
and radio can provide* Just as we want the people 
inside the ghetto to learn, those of us outside of 
it have also got to be ready to learn* For the many 
of us who have been emotionally raised in a world of 
platitudinous beliefs and verbal rationalizations it 
isn't going to be easy* But in realistic terms, for 
those who can't see it from any other point of view, 

I suspect that it beats having to choose between hiding 
out forever in the crab grass or risking a hole in 
the head to visit the art museum in the center of 
the city*" 



An address to the American Management Association 
Fourth Annual Conference on Education and Training 

August 13, 1968 at the New York Hilton Hotel, New York City 

by Dr. Robert L. Hilliard 

Chief, Educational Broadcasting Branch, Federal Communications Commission 
Chairman, Federal Interagency Broadcast Committee 

(Those remarks of Dr. Hilliard which pertain to areas not 
within the jurisdiction or responsibility of the FCC or 
FIBC are his own as a private individual and do not 
necessarily reflect the approval or endorsement of these 

This has been a year of innovation in the use of communications 
to meet urban needs. From August, 1967 to August, 1968. The year 
between the last American Management Association Conference on 
Education and Training and this one. 

(No, Messrs. Trowbridge, Lenoue and Cogan, I am not endorsing 
the AMA or last year's Conference as the progenitor of achievements 
in this field--though that Conference may indeed have contributed 
toward the spark of thought and action. This measurement of time 
is more a personal one.) 

At last year's Conference, as chairman of the general session 
on "The Revolution in Instructional and Educational Television,” I 
spoke on the needs of the inner-cities, specifically on "Communi- 
cations and Crisis.” At that time virtually no one was talking 
about the subject, and even less was being done. 

Today, however, one year later, we find a general session 
specifically devoted to the subject of "Education, Training and the 
Urban Crisis,” under the heading of "The Three R's Today-Rights, 

Revolution and Remedy.” Although we all wish that such a topic might 

be inapplicable to our society, it is gratifying to know that we are 

making some progress: we have gone beyond the limiting "cool it” 

approach to "revolution,” and are making efforts to understand the 

"rights” in our title, and to do something about them, to actuate the "remedy" 

in our title. For example, I suggested last year that a primary task 

in the inner-city is, through communications, to "make a dent in the 

curtain of hopelessness that has been pulled down over every black 

child and adult ... ghettoized into economic and cultural poverty.” 

- 2 - 

Virtually nothing was being done then. But today.we see a beginning 
with television and radio materials that provide a sense of history, 
identification and pride in background for the Afro-American. There 
have been not only network programs such as "Of Black America," but 
local programs, by commercial stations and in large part by educa¬ 
tional stations, that not only provide a sense of positive identi¬ 
fication, but provide, in many instances., the opportunity for the 
people of the black ghetto to do their own thing by determining the 
content, by presenting, and by participating in the programs. 

I suggested last year that if television, through its typical 
entertainment programs, continued to show the ghetto man, v?oman and 
child the material delights of the suburban promised land, did it 
not seem logical that television should go on from there and show 
them how to reach that land. Last year virtually nothing was being 
done. Today efforts are being made to provide information and 
educational programs oriented to the special needs and desires of 
the ghetto community. 

But some areas have not progressed so well. 

For example, when I use the term ghetto, 1 do not limit our 
concerns to the black ghetto. I include the brown ghettos and the 
white slums and the other minority groups as well. We are saying 
and doing very little about these other groups, perhaps most 
obviously about the Spanish speaking ghettos of the north and the 
barrios of the southwest. 

This holds true for content approaches, too. 


I suggested last year that educating the disadvantaged is not enough, 
that if domestic peace and justice are to be achieved, we must also educate 
the suburbs so that the majority society is ready to break the barriers 
that still exist against the minority, educated as well as non-educated. Not 
much has been done in that direction. 

For example, let us look at industry education and training. Are we 
providing opportunities for the educated minority group membeis to work in 
executive positions commensurate with their education, or are we 
putting minority group members into the category of trained, as opposed to 
educated, personnel? Are we providing on the job education and training not 
only for minority group people so that they can fit into all areas of our 
organisations, but perhaps more importantly education and training for the 
majorit y group members of our organisations so that minority group members 
may indeed have the opportunity to fit in? 

I stressed last year the need to completely reorient formal education 
and instruction as it is being largely practiced today. Today's child is 
not the child of our youth. He is not living in a print-oriented society. 

Ee is living in an aural and visual society. For example, by the time a 
child has graduated from high school he has spent some 10,800 hours in the 
classroom--and some 15,000 hours in front of the television set. Add to 
that the countless number of hours a transistor radio is glued to his ear 
and you have some notion of what he is tuned in to. 

It is no accident that last year the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights 
reported that not a single compensatory education program in the United States 
has been successful. It is no accident that New York University's celebrated 
Clinic for Learning in a junior high school in Brooklyn’s Bedford-Stuyvesant 
section "got the hell kicked out of us” and abandoned its efforts. It is no 


accident that millions of dollars are being poured into other similar efforts 
at special education for disadvantaged urban children and produce little or ■ 
no positive results. We are communicating with the wrong media. 

Vie must use the mass media not only to provide motivation through visual 
and aural action rather than through non-meaningful (to that child) print 
symbols~~but we must use the mass media to provide a socializing situation 
for the child, to make the real world a part of the classroom, to provide the 
problems of the real world as the learning problems; the solutions learned-- 
or at least the understanding obtained-~is what constitutes education. 

A comment by Marshall MacLuhan is appropriate here: "All the young are 
in the same position . * . . The discrepency -between the riches of the TV 
feast and the poverty of the school experience is creating great ferment, 
friction and psychic violence . . . but the new era and the new violence does 
not have an end in view ... it is the process itself that yields the new 
image. When children go to school they are filled with rage at the puny 
curriculum . . . the children in Watts ‘were quite right in thinking 'Why 
should we go to school to interrupt our education?*" 

Pertinent to our discussion here today are the words of President 
Johnson on November 7, 1.967, when he signed the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, 
The President stated that "while we work every day to produce new goods and to 
create new wealth, we want most of all to enrich man's spirit .... Today we 
rededicate a part of the airwaves--which belong to all the people-»for the 
enlightment of all the people .... We must consider new ways to build a 
great network for knowledge--not just a broadcast system, but one that employs 
every means of sending and of storing information that the individual can use. 


Think of the lives that this would change." He added that: "Government funding 
is both right and essential , , . but , » . private sector responsibility, . , 
is as great as that of the government." 

By stressing two areas: 1) orienting formal education to the aural-visual 
needs and psychological set of the child, rather than to the outmoded adminis¬ 
trative ease of the teacher; and 2) educating the majority society, I am not 
ignoring other needs. We need much better use of the media to provide direct 
information and education to the residents of the ghetto, with materials that 
they develop and that are developed to their needs and understanding; V7e need 
much more use of the media to enable the ghetto to communicate with itself, 
not only communication into the ghetto, but communication within the ghetto; 
we need greater use of the media for communication from the ghetto, to enable 
the residents of the inner-city to "tell it like it is" to suburbia, to the 
rest of the world that thinks it knows, but by and large has been given only 
the intellectual skimming of a situation and problems that have deep emotional 

But today, because of the relatively short time I have to speak with you, 

I want to enlarge, briefly, on just the two areas of formal education and 
majority education. 

We don’t have to rehash the problems of our educational system. Suffice 
to say that we have, by and large, one of the best educational systems of the 
nineteenth century. There are, however, some attempts being made to make it a 
good system of the twentieth century-~the kind of system needed before we can 
effectively use communications in formal education to meet the needs of our 
urban crisis. I will mention only a few. 


One such attempt may be the current Title III study, authorized by the 
Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, being conducted by the Office of Education of 

HEW. This study is well under way, analyzing instructional television and radio, 


including broadcast, closed-circuit, CATV, ITFS, and two-way communications of 
data! links and computers, and their relationship to each other and to instruc¬ 
tional materials such as videotapes, films, discs, computers and other devices. 

If the study results, as many people expect, in recommendations to Congress for 
legislation and for an instructional communications act similar to the Public 
Broadcasting Act; if such legislation-~and sufficient appropriations-«are 
passed; and if these media, properly funded, are then used as the realistically « 
principal bases of communications in education--and not, as now used, as 
reinforcement of 19th century methods and techniques~~then v, T e may be on our way 
to one significant remedy for the urban crisis. 

/mother approach is evidenced in the recently released statement on national 
policy by the research and policy committee of the Committee on Economic 
Development. In a study entitled "Innovation in Education:’ New Directions for 
the American School," the CED recommends reorganization of the American school 
for innovation and change, increased emphasis on research, dissemination and 
application, use of cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis in the schools 
and-~perhaps most immediately pertinent to our discussion here-~the establishment 
by Congress, as an independent, non-governmental agency, a Commission on Research, 
Innovation and Evaluation in Education. Such a Commission might very well 
provide the impetus and even persuasion to change our educational system for 
effective use of communications--again permitting application of an important 
remedy to urban crisis. 


A third area I would like to discuss, briefly, with you, is one that is 
somewhat different from the first two. j 

For some t5„me I have felt that one of the reasons we were not yet using 
the communications media to their fullest potential was because we have not 
been adequately prepared to do so. Most of us in the communications field 
have come into it from either another discipline, have been educated in only 
a small portion of it, or have been limited to broad and incomplete overviews 
of it. 

There is not, in this country or anywhere in the world, a single center that 
offers to the student, to the communications industry, to government, to education 
to the professions, to all the varied fields needing communications expertise, 
the kinds of communications training, experiences and services most vitally 
needed today. There are so many needs: international service; socio-political, 
including urban, applications; management and industry production, distribution, 
sales, training; federal government agencies; state and local governments; 
nongovernmental professional and citizen organizations; many specialized fields 
such as medicine, religion, law; and others. 

If we are to make greatest use of the potential of the mass media, we have 

got to give / the resources, respect and prestige of other fields, and provide 
thsoiwith personnel of the highest quality. -= 

Just as the future scientist can go to M.I.T, or Cal Tech, shouldn’t 
the future communicator also have a high quality University to learn 
in, in a field that is at least as important to the future of the world 
as are the disciplines now learned at MIT and Cal Tech? 

About a year ago X first proposed the establishment of a 
Communications University to provide the needed education and services. 

In the past few months, particularly, the response and support have 
been highly encouraging. 

- 8 - 

Within this Communications University I have proposed two special 
institutes: An Institute of International Communications, and an Institute : 

of Urban Communications. In addition, the University should have a first 
quality research center; a workshop, conference and convention center; a 
special training center for government personnel; consultant services to all 
potential users in all areas, including such things as systems planning; a 
produced^ center for all communications needs; a special center for innovative 
experiment and application; and, perhaps most important of all, the highest 
quality inter-disciplinary undergraduate and graduate degree and non-degree 

I believe that one of the most significant educational investments we can 
make today is to establish a Communications University maintaining the highest 
academic standards and services, not only for transmitting ideas, but for 
relating people with people, and for reaching people with both content and 
non-content motivation. 

I believe such a University could have great positive value in meeting 
the immediate and ultimate needs of urban America as well as the needs of 
other geographical and sociological areas of the world. 

One highly relevant point in terms of our particular discussion here today: 
such a University should be--would have, to be--developed through the cooperative 
efforts of government, education, industry, and foundations t 

I shall not take time here to discuss other efforts in the area of 
communications and formal education. What is important is our individual 
commitment to an active role in supporting one or more of these efforts if we 
believe that communications and education are indeed remedies for the urban crisis. 


The second major area that I propose to discuss with you today is that 
of educating the majority society. In the vernacular, it is "doing our own 
thing*" White America, the majority population, has always been the major 
factor in determining the status and activity of black America. This is 
changing. It is a significant change. It is a change that recognizes the 
kind of independence, self-determinism and self-realization that the American 
Management Association, for example, is dedicated to. Paternalism and handouts, 
in no matter what form of altruism or sincerity, are not the answer many 
people once thought they were. Black Americans more and mere want to do their 
own thing, want the pride and self-respect of making their own progress. 

Something casing right now at the Dalton School here in New York may 
provide some insights into what is happening. The Parents-Teachers organization 
of this private school of good reputation, located in the affluent Park 
Avenue and 89th Street area, sponsored a program to bring parents of children 
at that school and parents of special school 201 in Harlem together to learn 
how to help their children learn to read better. "A more satisfactory way than 
writing checks," one of the sponsoring parents said* The $26.40 costs paid by 
each Dalton parent were not charged the parents from Harlem. What disappointment 
for the white parents, then, when only 13 of the expected 40 parents from 
Harlem showed up—13 out of a total of 100 adults in the program! How to 
explain this? Rationalization? Condemnation? Frustration? Listen: 

A recent article in The New York Times quoted one young man as saying 
"We don’t say keep whites out of our lives, but we say make black people so 
strong they can do their thing--whatever their thing is--by themselves." 

Another was quoted as saying: "Black people want black control of their 
lives and activities more than anything else. If they make mistakes, let 
them be black mistakes~**we*re tired of white mistakes in our lives." 

- 10 - 

• Isn't this the kind of independence and privilege--the kind of right--that 
most of us in the majority society have always taken for granted for ourselves? 

Where does that leave many of us who strongly believe/we^ as individuals, 
not only can help alleviate the urban crisis, but perhaps even have a 
responsibility to do so? The same Time s article contains another quote, 
expressing a growing sentiment among minority group people, that gives us a 
clue: “The missionary area for white people is not in ghettos, but in white 

The Republican candidate for president and the major Democratic candidates 
for the presidental nomination have all, in varying degrees, supported the 
principle of economic self-determinism, control and development by the ghetto 
people within the ghettos. An example in current practice is the Xerox program 
in Rochester, in which the Corporation has agreed to underwrite the development 
of a black-owned and operated plant, and would guarantee purchase, for Xerox needs, 
of a certain amount of the plant's product. 

In other words, those of us who are concerned about the urban crisis and 
want to do something about it, might consider whether our best efforts might 
not now be oriented toward a new approach: doing our own thing. 

We have seen recently, in communications, several initial efforts on a 
large scale that seem to recognize the validity and value of this approach. 

Some of these efforts have been through mass media programs aimed toward white 
suburbia understanding of the needs and problems of the inner-cities. Others 
have been on an organization scale. 

For example, very recently, after many months of planning and work, the 
Office of Economic Opportunity established a government-industry-education- 
community project in a midwest city. The state bar association, a respected, 

- 11 - 

somewhat conservatively oriented organization, wished to alleviate the urban 
crisis by presenting materials dealing with the legal rights and responsibilities 
of ghetto residents. Their first approach was to develop the ideas and to have 
them! produced by an outside organization. The results were less than satis¬ 
factory. Finally, it was decided that each group concerned would do their own 
thing. 0E0 coordinated and funded the project; the bar association, in 
cooperation with a ghetto organization ( a black nationalist group, by the way), 
determined the basic problem areas; the bar association, on its own, developed 
the legal approaches to be used; the black citizens group, on its own, produced 
the communications materials for mass distribution. 

At the Federal Communications Commission, last month, we did our own thing 
in acting to enforce compliance by broadcasters with laws on non-discrimination 
in employment. The FCC also proposed new rules to aid in enforcement and-«in 
what the Commission called the most important part of its order---appealed to 
broadcasters to assist through both employment and programming policies in 
easing the national racial crisis. We trust industry will cooperate with 
government in achieving these goals. 

In Canada a highly dramatic plan is evolving, one which is being studied 
carefully by one of our government agencies to determine applicability to the 
needs of our disadvantaged citizens. Briefly stated, the National Film Board 
of Canada, in cooperation with Memorial University of Newfoundland and the 
community of Fogo Island, filmed in depth the problems and people of Fogo Island, 
then played back these films to the people to help reveal, modify and develop 
individual and group attitudes. The entire community was involved at all 
stages in decisions to be made and in the entire prpcess of self-analysis and 

- 12 - 

problem solving. The people selected the topics, participated in editing 
decisions, and determined the extent of distribution. Some of the goals 
include developing insights into community problems and a desire by the 
community to act on them, the fostering of more effective community-education- 
government cooperation, and the promoting of greater understanding and a 
desire for action in communities with similar problems by showing the films there. 

The basic approach, used in this country, might be of great value in 
achieving government-industry-education-community cooperative efforts, each 
doing that which it can do best, to establish important communication links 
among the disadvantaged minorities, and between these people and majority groups,* 

Finally, I want to mention just one more effort within our own government. 
Many of our government agencies have been making strong efforts to meet the needs 
of the inner-cities. Last month, the Federal Interagency Broadcast Committee, 
consisting of representatives of thirty-tv;'o federal departments and agencies 
with communication responsibilities, recommended the establishment of a 
Communications Liaison Office on Minority Group Matters. This office, if 
established, would*among other things, cooperate with■industry and other 
public and private organizations in facilitating the development, distribution 
and use of materials oriented toward minority group needs, specifically 
including the needs of the urban ghettos. The agencies would be encouraged and 
assisted in diversifying materials, not only for informing minority groups 
of services available to them, but materials which would assist intra-minority 
group communications, and materials which would be aimed toward educating the 
majority society on the special problems and needs of minority groups. The 
Office would also develop a broadcasting skills bank of minority group 
personnel so that agencies, through employment of more minority group members, 

- 13 - 

• could have more direct and sensitive knowledge than many now have on needs 
and problems and on effectively communicating with minority groups. This 
office would also encourage greater use of minority group performers in 
materials prepared for distribution. 

These various cooperative approaches and projects we have been discussing 
are .significant in that they do not attempt to dictate to urban minorities, do 
not try to tell the ghetto people what they should do, or try to do it for them. 
They do attempt to provide resources and opportunities for the urban people 
to do their own' thing. 

There has been a hopeful beginning over the past year. Much of the 
broadcasting activity was evident during and following the April disruptions 
in our inner-cities. Let us hope that continuing activity includes a 
lecognition that rights" and "remedies" go beyond disorders, and that the 
"cool-it" kind of program is only a last resort indicating that we have failed 
in the more important aspects of communication. (For an analogy let*s consider 
one of the remarkable ironies in our society. There always seems to be enough 
money and support to build prisons: you can't leave lawbreakers loose in the 
streets. But try to get money and support to provide the education and training 
and necessities and opportunities that will lessen the need for jails, and 
be less costly in human and material resources in the long run, and it is not 
quite so easy.) Many good programs on television and radio have been seen and 
heard this summer; Let us hope that they will not disappear once the rerun 
season is over. 

This day, this session at the American Management Association is 
evidence of a desire and, perhaps we can hope, a commitment to move ahead to 
more and better government-industry-education-community projects to meet the 

- 14 - 

•• urban crisis. Not only for providing a communications base for formal education, 

and foi leaching the majority society, the two areas I have concentrated on, 

but for the various other needs and approaches, as well. 

But what is especially significant for us as individuals is to realize 

that none of us need to face real or imagined uncooperative roadblocks in trying 
to reach people who may feel we do not understand them, and in trying 
to do things for people that we may feel they do not understand. 

Unless we are ready to reorient our philosophy to the practical consideration 

of getting the job done in terms of the realistic requirements of the situation, 

all of our most- sophisticated and sincere education and training programs will be 

of little value. Some of the projects I have described may indicate some 

worthwhile directions and opportunities. Some of our best and most effective 

help isa all eviating the urban crisis can come by providing inner-city control cf 
projects and by 

Inner-city / r-’.orienting much of our effort toward our/organizations and 
activities, toward our own milieu, toward the people we can most readily reach * « 
by--simply--doing our own thing! 


August 9, 1967, American Hotel, New York City 



Dr. Robert L. Hilliard 

Chief, Educational Broadcasting Branch, Federal Communications Commission 
Chairman, Federal Interagency Broadcast Committee 

(The comments in this paper are Dr. Hilliard’s as a private individual 
and do not necessarily reflect the endorsement or approval of the 
Federal Communications Commission or the Federal Interagency Broadcast 

Robert L. Hilliard 

I had intended to speak here today, for an overview of what is to 
come this morning, on the technological revolution that has taken place 
in the world and on the revolution that has not taken place in education; 
on a philosophy of pragmatism that has seen the developments in communi¬ 
cations, transportation and energy create a new mode of living and think¬ 
ing and on an existing philosophy and practice of education that has by 
and large continued to divorce itself from the real world and remain 
firmly fixed in the 19 th century. 

I had intended to stress, not as an ending point, but as a starting 
point, the concept that many of you have heard me present in recent 
speeches: that we must cease using educational technology to reinforce, 
to reflect outmoded educational curricula, technique and administration, 
and that wemust use the media to affect education, just as these media 
have affected the world outside of the classroom, including students and 
teachers. I had intended to list specific changes in education necessary 
for it to take full advantage of and give full measure to the world it is in. 

In fact, I have that particular speech written. But I am not going to 
give it. 

The events of the past several weeks have made it clear to me that any 
discussion of education and technology at this time has got to relate itself 
directly, sharply, unhesitatingly to the urgencies in our society, to a 
broad concept of education that is the here and now of the practical and 
not only the then and there of the theoretical. 

I believe we must assess educational media, particularly television, 
not only for their critical importance, but also for their importance in 
times of crisis. 

In making this speech change virtually at the last minute, just before 
coming to New York for this conference, I should say that my comments here 
today, therefore, do not necessarily reflect the position or endorsement of 
the Federal Communications Commission. 

Newark, Detroit, Milwaukee, East Harlem are more important in reveal¬ 
ing our failures and potentials in the field of education, in educational 
technology and in communications than are all the experiments and applica¬ 
tions in industry and in the schools and colleges. 

We must take a deep breath and give deep thought when we look at recent 
occurences. How desperate a person must be to be willing to destroy every¬ 
thing he has—including his very life.' What hopelessness and despair force 
people to acts of self-destruction.' What a tragic cry for help is an inward 
act of violence.' What a forsaken wilderness of education and communication 
is revealed between the total society and .large segments of its people.' 

Between the lines of hysteria and behind the pictures of fear two 
consistent points continue to appear: education and communications. A 

- 2 - 

number of Senators have linked the riots to educational deprivation. 

Senator Robert Kennedy said: "We pass bills and appropriate money and 
assuage our consciences, and local school systems keep right on doing 
things the way they've done them for decades." Senator Jacob Javits sees 
education as part of the solution to offset the "frustration, despair and 
anger" that "create the conditions which bring on the riots." Senator 
Wayne Morse stated that the racial unrest in urban areas was also due, 
in part, to "the educational starvation which the Negroes have suffered." 

New York Mayor John Lindsay, following the disorders here a few weeks 
ago, noted that the appropriate agencies have not been able to "make con¬ 
tact" with the teenagers who made up most of the disorderly mobs. In 
Philadelphia a while ago--just before the sweep of riots—a high official 
of the school system told me of the threat of a riot, an attack upon a 
school in a so-called white neighborhood. The white people were the 
incipient rioters, objecting to the fact that a number of non-white 
children came into their area to attend that school. The white children 
of the community were part of the threatening mob. The difficulty, said 
the school official, was communication--to reach these white people with 
information and understanding to "cool them," and to help them learn 

In the domestic crisis of our time we come back, then, again and again, 
to these two interacting areas: education and communications. We come back 
to the need for some people to learn about the special problems and needs of 
other people, even in the same community. In an article in INTERCOM in 
January, 1967 * Dr. Seymour Fersh stated: "The best way—though certainly 
not an infallible one—to learn about other peoples and cultures is by 
direct experience. The least effective way is by words because words 
themselves are a man-made product of one's own culture." This experience 
I think I may interpret as including communication of visual and aural 
experiences that are not verbal alone and, most important, including the 
psychological impact at the same time of the media in themselves, aside 
from content. 

We have so much to do in so many formal education areas, those of us 
who are dedicated to the communications-transportation-energy revolution, 
that it may seem unfair to say that it is further incumbent upon us to use 
those means of communications in which we are expert to meet the needs and 
problems of those people who cry out verbally in despair and who act out 
physically in desperation; to meet the needs and problems of those who ciy 
out in dismay and uncomprehension when they view the desperate reactions of 
many of their fellow citizens; in other words, to communicate between and 
among all the peoples of our country. Is there any reasonable alternative? 

Recently I had the privilege of providing consultation in the planning 
of a program for one of our large city ghetto areas. 

(I might, as an aside for a moment, comment on that word "ghetto." 

It is significant, I think, that it is the term "ghetto" that is being 
used more and more in newspapers and on radio and television. We used to 
call those areas slums. Now we use a term, that refers to a group 

deliberately isolated—the traditional concept of ghetto as developed in 
organized discrimination against the Jews in Europe throughout the centuries. 
Does it seem to you that the term "ghetto" is more descriptive and explana¬ 
tory of what has happened and what is happening than is the word "slum"? 

Have you heard of poor whites living in ghettos? They live in slums.) 

My plan for the inner-city (or ghetto) took into consideration the 
concept that has been put forth by many educators-sociologists-psychologists 
that thus far the compensatory education programs in this country have not 
effectively raised the level of learning of the children. (You may recall 
that this was a basic statement in the fine NET documentary on the Bedford- 
Stuyvesant, Brooklyn,, school experiment, "The Way It Is.") 

Part of the reason for failure is that these programs have concentrated 
on the concept that this is a print world, that the student's orientation, 
intake and output is print, is reading. The child in Bedford-Stuyvesant 
says he doesn't find anything interesting in school. What he means is that 
he's bored because he can't read the book used as the core of instruction. 

We. cannot teach him to read the book as we might teach children who have 
not suffered the psychologically destructive, deprived backgrounds of many 
of these children. We must first reach this child to motivate him toward 
the personal worth and confidence that will give him a base for being willing 
to learn. We must use those means to reach him to which he is already tuned 
in: radio and television. To continue to push print as the primary approach 
is to continue to create an ever concentric circle of stone walls surrounding 
the child. ^o^o^-i^antly, we m ust do away with the print oriented evalua¬ 
tions—really misevaluations--of the child: information-learning and infor¬ 

Much has been said, particularly in relation to school integration, 
about the ability and readiness of the ghetto child to learn. Frequently, 
we offer conclusions about the ghetto child through intelligence test 
results. We find generally low IQs. All this shows is the fallacy and 
inadequacy of intelligence tests. 

Outside of the school that child thinks, uses his mind. The child in 
the ghetto, just to survive, must make meaningful, effective judgments and 
decisions every moment of the day--and night. And this takes a kind of 
intelligence that most of us have not had to exercise. When talking about 
survival in the ghetto, it is not like the experience of most of our children 
playing in the back yard. It is an experience usually lacking the guidance 
of an adult. It requires an intelligence of a high practical order that is 
not reflected in the verbal oriented-cultural achievement evaluations we 
call IQ tests. It is the kind of ability many industry people say they are 
looking for, but have not yet really utilized. 

The intelligence and potential are clearly there. They must be 
motivated and matured through communications and education. They must be 
communicated with and given an opportunity to communicate. 

- 4 - 

We must use the mass media to provide a socializing situation for 
the child, to make the real world a part of the classroom, to provide the 
problems of the real world as the learning problem; the solutions learned— 
or at least the understanding obtained--is what constitutes education, 
/information regurgitated on examinations is not education. And we must 
recognize, too, that print is only a small part of the child's (and adult's) 
total daily communications existence.7 

The visual and aural input into the classroom must turn the classroom 
away from the classroom, must remove the four walls. We must bring in those 
experiences that are meaningful and those people who are meaningful. The 
•terror of being put in a classroom surrounded by tasks that he cannot do 
and that have little meaning to his real world, being surrounded by white 
faces in suits and ties that drive out of the ghetto in cars every afternoon 
to another world--these are conditions that are unreal, that have no meaning, 
and it is incredible that anybody can be expected to learn anything under 

What is true for the child in the classroom is, by projection, true for 
the adult in the apartment house or on the block. We have learned that the 
old ways do not work. The traditional methods of communicating with adults 
have failed again and again, in Detroit, in Newark, in Milwaukee. 

The first task is not to organize a group to discuss housing problems, 
or to set up an unemployment opportunity office, or to create sidewalk 
colleges, or to bring in a task force of expert teachers to help children 
learn how to read. 

The first task is to make a dent in the curtain of hopelessness that 
has been pulled down over every Negro child and adult, every Negro family, 
every Negro community that has been ghettoized into economic and cultural 

To try to bring some bit of reality, as opposed to the oft-broken 
promises, to the dream--not deferred for these people, but -shattered—that 
there is some hope for their children, if not for themselves. 

Eadio and television are the primary means of communication these 
people have with the outside world and therefore must be given a primary 
emphasis in any inner-city plan. 

In my own mind I have no doubt that the daily and nightly electronic 
visions about all those families with pleasant homes and nice cars and well- 
dressed and well-fed kids makes a man very uncheerful about the two rooms 
his family shares with the rats. 

If television has shown the ghetto man, woman and child the suburban 
promised land, does it not seem logical that television should go on from 
there and show them how to reach that land? 

- 5 - 

Presumably through education. And there’s the rub.' You may have 
seen the recent study which indicates that the educated Negro is often just 
as angry and just as ready to go along with violence as is the less well 
educated precisely because he has made the educational hurdle and is still 
barred from the economic promised land. 

So, it is not enough for television to educate the disadvantaged. 

If domestic peace and justice are to be achieved, will television not also 
have to educate the rest of us to accept the practice of what we preach? 

If we really believe that education is the barrier, then once the dis¬ 
advantaged are educated, we must be ready to break the barriers. We 
must educate the ghettos, yes, but we must also educate the suburbs. 

The people on the outside of the ghettos who still practice a TV kind 
of paternalism. How long do you think society can keep saying: "Look--- 
but don’t touch.’? 

We are talking about television; and we are all of us tuned in. 

The Bible says that the child is father to the man. Freud said that what 
a man will be is determined by the time he is three years old. And the 
latest statistics say that two-year olds spend about 20 hour per week 
watching television. 

We—all of us--need the education that television and the other elec¬ 
tronic media can provide. Just as we want the people inside the ghetto to 
learn, those of us outside of it have also got to be ready to learn. For 
the many of us who have been emotionally raised in a world of platitudinous 
beliefs and verbal rationalizations it isn't going to be easy. But in 
realistic terms, for those who can't see it from any other point of view, 

I suspect that it beats having to choose between hiding out forever in the 
crab grass or risking a hole in the head to visit the art museum in the 
center of the city. 

70 Fifth Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 10011 
OB 5-2536, OR 5-2700 



August 19, 1968 

Mr. Kenneth R. Clark 
Project Director 


13^6 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20036 

Dear Mr. Clark: 

Mr. Horton was very pleased to receive a copy 

of "In Local Television the Eye Begins to Open on the 
Ghetto" by Sherman Brodey in TELEVISION. The article 
was brought to his attention last week by a consultant 
to the Media Project and Mr. Horton was most anxious to 
obtain a copy. You have saved us the trouble. There 
does seem, however, to be a part of the article missing 
from the xerox we received. The last page we have in 
the body of the article is page Ilk. If you would have 
your secretary send us whatever remains of the article, 
we would certainly appreciate it. In fact, if you have 
a number of copies on hand, we would be most grateful to 
have two or three more. 

Thank you so much for all the help you continue 
to give the Media Project. 

Very truly yours. 

Susan S. Horton 
Secretary to Mr. Horton 




15 August 1968 

Mr. Ken Clark 
Project Director 

Programing for the Disadvantaged 
National Association of 
Educational Broadcasters 
1346 Connecticut Ave., N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20036 

Dear Ken: 

your work in rounding 

up and disseminating information on programing 

for the disadvantaged 

I think your activity is clearly a crucial 

After talking with Dave Leonard here I am emboldened to 
make a suggestion. Because of the heightened interest in educational 
broadcasting’s role for the disadvantaged and because of the obvious 
interest being demonstrated by this field’s capital resources I 
wonder if money can be found not only to continue your current 
activity but to supplement it with actual program examples of what 
is being transmitted and reports on the success, almost-success or 
the failure of the projects. It seems to me that such a rounded 
information service could serve as a fine demonstration basis for 
the whole of the field as well as for those interested in what we 
are doing. 

The real stuff of this letter was to be a request that you 
keep your ears tuned on our behalf for anything in the area of 
instructional television for the disadvantaged. Would you? 

Best wishes, 

Edward J.' Pfister 

Information Services 


cc: Chalmers Marquis 

WTTW/Channel 11 & WXXW/Channel 20,5400 N. St. Louis Aye., Chicago, Illinois 60625 

312/583-5000-TWX 910/221-5459 

John W. Taylor, Executive Director 


Edward L. Ryerson, Honorary Chairman 
Newton N. Minow, Chairman 
Irving B. Harris, President 
Homer P. Hargrave, Jr., Vice President 
George A. Ranney, Vice President 
Alfred C. Stepan, Jr., Vice President 
Lester Armour, Treasurer 
Robert L. Foote, Secretary 


Robert R. Barker 
Mrs. Etta Moten Barnett 
Charles Benton 
Fairfax M. Cone 
James W. Cook 
Ronald E. Cramer 
Mrs. Wesley M. Dixon 
Edward S. Donnell 
Donald J. Erickson 
Bert A. Getz 
Bruce J. Graham 
John D. Gray 
Paul W. Guenzel 
John H. Johnson 
William A. Lee 
Leonard S. Matthews 
Henry W. Meers 
Newton N. Minow 
Donald McKellar 
William E. McManus 
Don Paul Nathanson 
Donald S. Perkins 
Mrs. Harold L. Perlman 
Peter G. Peterson 
George A. Ranney 
James F. Redmond 
Stanley M. Sorensen 
Alfred C. Stepan, Jr. 

Gardner H. Stern 
W. Clement Stone 
Robert E. Straus 
J. W. Van Gorkom 
Robert B. Wilcox 
Benjamin C. Willis 
Joseph S. Wright 


Art Institute of Chicago 

Barat College of the Sacred Heart 

Chicago Board of Education 

Chicago Historical Society 

Chicago Medical School 

Chicago Planetarium Society 

Chicago Public Library 

Chicago Zoological Society 

College of Jewish Studies 

College of St. Francis 

DePaul University 

Elmhurst College 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Forest Preserve District of Cook County 

George Williams College 

Illinois Institute of Technology 

Indiana University 

John Crerar Library 

Lake Forest College 

Library of International Relations 

Loyola University 

Mundelein College 

Museum of Science and Industry 

National College of Education 

Newberry Library 

North Central College 

North Park College 

Northern Illinois University 

Northwestern University 

Orchestral Association 

Purdue University Calumet Center 

Roosevelt University 

Rosary College 

Saint Xavier College 

University of Chicago 

University of Illinois 

Valparaiso University 

August l4, 1968 

Mr. Kenneth Clark 
National Association of 
Educational Broadcasters 
1346 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. 
Washington, D. C. 20036 

Dear Mr. Clark: 

What happened to the report 

>ur activities? 

Edward L. Morris 
Director of Programming 

Chicago Educational Television Association 

Mrs. Charles Stich 


August 11, 1968 

Mr Kenneth Clark 

National association of Educational Broadcasters 
1346 Connecticut ave NW 
Washington, D.C. 20006 

•‘■'ear Mr Clark: 

iVi iss huth Young of Station WES, New Orleans, informed i 
me of your request for copies of our Do-It-Yourself 
Folder on-How To Get The Job Done & End the Talk. 

The idea for this folder grew as more and more citizens 
mostly.white, emerged from the woodwork, so to speak, 
and asked what could they aoi The Community Relations 
Council, a human relations group organized almost 
7 years ago decided that we should be giving answers 
to these and other persons who are indicating a 
desire to straighten up and fly right, act decently, 
and dd> something to improve the climate of attitudes 
and actions* 

ihe folder was developed with the assistance of many 
community leaders and professionals involved with the 
local urban crisis. A Life Mag writer assisted me in 
putting the folder together. A leading advertising exec 
and a local commercial art man contributed talent to 
the format and layout. 

tie printed 5000 and kicked them off in connection with 


Page 2 

Mrs. Charles Stich 


on open ended telecast entitled. An End To Talk. It 
featured the Assistant Seer, of Labor, Stanley 
Ruttenberg, the local Chairman of MB, plus voices 
from the black and white middle class and the black psoci 
power militants. It was a 'phone-in program, and the 
4 telephones rang off the hooks. As a result of this 
television exposure plus CRC publicity, we have dis¬ 
tributed all but a few hundred folders. 

2£s Community Relations Council has only meager funds 
derived from membership dues, we are now looking for 
an interested group, or foundation, or federal pro¬ 
gram under which we can 

1. Revise the folder(up-dating it and refining it) 
and printing several thousand with a plan for 
distribution to key groups across the nation. 

2. Produce a package of ±kx television public 
service commercials demonstrating on film how 
to carry out suggested content in folder(see 
attached television scripts). 

We believe that the time is ripe for citizens nation- '.lc 
wide to recognize that with a few simple acts on the pa:? 
part of themselves and countless others, tense con¬ 
ditions can be relieved, the economy can grow, living 
and relating to and with others can become pleasant 
and comfortable. Without these acts, frustration will g:: 
grow, tensions will mount, and our cities and their 

citizens will suffer 

even perish. 

Mrs. Charles Stich 

Page 3 


I have written in much detail, because we will be 
most interested to receive your comments, and 
hopeful of receiving direct assistance from your 
association in getting our two-step program under¬ 
way nationally. 

I am sending a copy of this letter to my close 
friend Bill Monroe, of NBC. If you are friends, he 
can fill you in on me and the Community Relations 
Council of New Orleans. 

Most - 1 — 

cc Wm. B. Monroe 
Revius Ortique 
Roy M Schwarz 


A division of 



August 8, 1968 

Sixth Report on Programming for the Disadvantaged 
Ken Clark, Project Director 

William A. Emerson, Editor of the Saturday Evening Post , -examined 
the issue that relates to your work and mine in the August 10, 1968 issue. 

’’The ghetto is a container for the condensing and storing of 
undesirable human beings. We are putting these people in 
vertical filing cabinets called tenements, and we are literally 
filing them away, stacking them up as high as we can make 
them climb. Around Harlem and all of the other ghettos, we 
have dug a cultural moat so deep and treacherous, we have 
built a wall of deprivation so slippery and high, and we have 
strung around them a barbed-wire thicket of prejudice so 
forbidding that even those who keep the will to escape need 
a terrible bit of luck to manage it.’’ 

What are we educational broadcasters doing to stop the ’'people-filing'* 
in Summer ’68? Cuite a bit. But Mike Pengra, Program Operations Manager 
at KSPS-TV, Spokane points out a danger to stations in secondary markets. 

Major market stations have reacted to racial incidents in their cities 
with dedicated activity. But what about the smaller market where the black 
population is small, non-vocal. ., .invisible? Is there indeed a need for stations 
in such areas to take the initiative, to maintain a strong minority programming 
liaison.. .. regardless of the temper of the city or of racial incidents taking 
place? Well, one militant black in Spokane recently jolted a black-white con¬ 
frontation by pointing out that minority peoples there ’’may not be ready to burn 
down the town, but they all have matches in their pockets. " Think about it. 

KSPS thought about it and came up with a remarkable plan. The station 
recognized that it had to move into the arena of minority affairs. The answer; 
work with the local Youth Opportunity Center and the local school system; obtain 
a list of Disadvantaged kids (primarily black, but with the possibility of both 
Indians and Orientals in the running too), KSPS would then screen the list down 
to from six to eight. 

Then community spirit got into the act. Local businessmen and civic 
groups are being approached to sponsor one boy each for a year of training by 

- 2 - 

the station. How the funding will be defined has not been settled (i, e. scholar¬ 
ships vs. salaries), but the ultimate solution will be something from which the 
participants can take a sense of personal pride. 

For one full year, KSPS will work with these trainees.,,. and they will 
put in a 40 hour work week plus attend and participate in a weekly three hour 
communications seminar held at the station. 

These kids will make up the crew of KSPS. They will train and function 
as camermen, floor managers, boom operators, back up personnel in the Art 
Department etc. 

The station had a black camerman on its paid staff all last year and was 
rewarded with the talents of a gifted employee. Now KSPS is going for big 
casino with an all-ghetto-kids approach (most will be dropouts). That takes 
pits. I think we owe KSPS our moral support for their pioneering plunge. The 
idea suggests a whole new bag in the station-community-Disadvantaged troika. 

Students will receive at the end of the year’s work a certificate from the 
Spokane Public Schools noting certain numbers of credit hours achieved toward 
a high school diploma as a result of the KSPS experience. 

Clearly a station that runs ahead of the crowd, KSPS is readying 
a new series of six half-hour programs called "Live In My Skin" which tries 
in a very different way to pull apart the hangups blacks and whites have about 
each other. ... and perhaps to reconstruct a little uptight thinking in the 

The series will tackle a different problem or issue each time and role- 
play with a Black acting out a situation as he thinks Whites would live it. 
Conversely, a White will act the part of the Black in the situation. Each will 
have an opposite race counterpart who will only interupt the dialogue if the 
roles are not being played with accuracy and understanding. 

Such situations as making a job application, and school enrollment (or 
dropout) will get the "Live In My Skin" treatment. Sounds wild, if it’s kept 
honest. I believe it will be. KSPS deserves the confidence of the Spokane 

black community by being honest from the start_by saying, "Look, isn't 

there a basis for some kind of friendship between us?" Now the station is 
trusted. Mike Pengra sums it up by looking forward to the day when "we can 
all finally personally get there. " I've a hunch KSPS may get "there" before a 
good many others. 

CONTACT: Mike Pengra, Program Operation Manager 

* ❖ * sfe 

The Eastern Educational Network expending one grant and receiving 
another is very much involved in minority issues. In January, EEN received 


a $250, 000 grant from the Carnegie Corporation to make it possible to produce 
a number of specials for the purposes of testing regional networking on a live 
interconnected basis wherever possible. Nearly twenty programs were so 
produced, several tackling the urban problems. Two of the best: 

HELP WANTED, a WETA, Washington, D. C. production that looked 
at hard-core unemployment in a 90 minute probe that originated live from 
Washington, Philadelphia and Buffalo. A teenager from Philadelphia, a man 
in his late 20’s in Buffalo, and a man over 45 in Washington, D. C. participated 
in the talk which was structured to (a) find out what it is like to be a member of 
the hard-core unemployed; (b) to see what business is doing to alleviate un¬ 
employment; and (c) to create a meaningful communications channel between 
businessmen and the unemployed. 

TALKING BLACK pulled apart the ideas that bind and do not bind a black 
community with ghetto residents in Pittsburgh’s n Hill" section, Boston's Roxbury 
District, and New York’s Harlem responding to a trio of black reporters. Short 
films on the cities illustrated the discussions which centered on differences and 
similarities of the respective cultural structures. 

The EEN has recently been granted $300, 000 for programming by the 
Ford Foundation. This grant permits a bit more flexibility in program plans. 

At this reading, EEN plans on a regional public affairs one hour series 
on alternate Tuesdays beginning October 15th. There will be 16 to 20 programs 
in this series. In addition, 6 to 10 cultural events and hearings will be covered. 
On both series material for, by or about the Disadvantaged will be included. 

EEN, a leader in interconnecting is making a real contribution to minority 
programming through its simultaneous delivery on up to 25 connected stations 
and through early tape delay on eight others. 

CONTACT: John R. Morrison, Director of Programming 

sjc sjc sje 

Down in Florida, the State Department of Education has allocated $6,400 
to be divided among six ETV and six ER stations for purposes of Disadvantaged 
oriented programs. 

WUSF Radio and Television, Tampa, reports plans for a two part series 
in which they hope to pull apart the racial "thing" in that city. The stations will 
compare the Florida of the travel posters with the Florida of the slums, of the 
poor, of the disadvantaged. They will explore the police-citizen relatipnships 
and station personnel will see first hand what's happening when they take night 
rides through the city. . . . first with a black officer, then with a white. Program 
#1 will be this comparative analysis of the black-white syndromes. 


Program #2 will be a follow-up with blacks, having viewed and heard 
the first siiow, opening up their thoughts to the problem. What has been done? 

What is accurate about the program? What is inaccurate and why? Can the 
white man ever tell it like it is? And so on. The two-parter doesn't expect to 
finalize answers. But maybe it will stir up questions that won't go away. And 
that's a start. 

The stations do not have any blacks on their full time staffs, however 
many black students participate in the operations and programming on a part 
time basis. 

And speaking of students, WUSF is active in the Upward Bound program 
for a second year. Disadvantaged kids (Puerto Rican, White and Black) spend 
time on the University of Southern Florida campus in a variety of summer projects. 
WUSF invites 10 to 20 down three nights a week to participate in a communications 
skills project designed just for them. Use of the equipment, writing, directing, 
announcing and producing are all tapght and the students are urged to try them¬ 
selves out on camera and mike. 

The Upward Bound project at WUSF last 1 1/2 months. Hopefully, some 
of these kids will join WUSF staffs in the future; some are already showing real 
talent. The industry needs trained people, WUSF is sure some of the youngsters 
will find their niche in broadcasting as careers. That's the name of the game 
and educational broadcasting in Tampa is playing square. 

CONTACT: William M. Brady, Radio Coordinator and Program Manager 

* sjc * * 

WETA, Washington, D. C. has been working on a jobs-oriented series 
since November. It's an interesting story to watch unfold because the format 
has changed as the station discovered it was over reaching its Intended audience. 

In the original series, a Moderator (black) handled a discussion format 
with various employers ranging across the job spectrum who would talk with 
viewers on a seven telephone hookup arrangement. The Moderator had a solid 
background in employment field. People with jobs to offer appeared and described 
the work. The program urged viewers to telephone for more information and to 
describe their own qualifications. r] 

Sounds good so far. What happened? The particular jobs turned out to 
be primarily marked for skilled labor and for blue collar-white collar positions, 
in other words for people who already had a fair shake. 

WETA wanted to get to the hard core, to reach the inner city residents 
who had not found their own "out", who felt they never would have a chance at 
decent employment. 


The station was granted funds by the Ford Foundation to continue the 
job series under a new format. Titled "Jobs 26" (Channel 26), the series 
expanded to four 1/2 hour programs each week and will go for a total of 208 
in the current project. 

In the new version, there are two hosts; Petey Green, a Soul Brother 
who knows the ghettos first hand, who has a prison record, who has struggled 
himself to go straight in the White Man’s world; and Dick McCormack, a White 
who has been in the movement for some time, doing a variety of things which 
include a stint with Sargent Shriver and the Office of Economic Opportunity. 

Green and McCormack work well together, complimenting each other in a 
lively, entertaining way. 

A "Blackboard Girl" (black) urges viewers to phone in throughout the 
program. Her pitch is credited with really getting the calls in. Green, some¬ 
what of an instant celebrity in the Washington inner city, talks the language 
of the ghettos. His sincerity can't be denied. He's been there. And back. 

Guests who know the job scene are invited on the program. They come 

prepared to talk honestly, without reservation, to anyone who calls in. 

. y ? 

A battery of phones are manned by volunteers who handle the calls that 
offeri light up the switchboard. Phoners are given the information requested, 
or urged to phone the appropriate number at their convenience. . . .then encouraged 
to join in the job talk with Green and McCormack, sharing their own view and 

Its not all serious. Humor finds its way into the series as the hosts 
spark each other, their guests and the phoners toward very human exchanges 
on job-hunting. ... an experience we can all relate to. 

A part of the JOBS 26 project will be a follow-up study to be conducted 
by a research unit at George Washington University. Green and McCormack 
are still flexible with the format and are exploring the possibility of any change 
that further opens up the series to the inner city audience. 

WETA is into re-runs of a successful series called ROUNDABOUT, a 
15 minute program twice each week with a Negro host who chats with a bi-racial 
group of pre-schoolers. 

The station does more than talk about jobs for Blacks. On the staff; an 
Associate Producer, an Engineering Supervisor and a Secretary. The JOBS 26 
staff is primarily black. In addition, three students from Howard University 
are part time employees. 

WETA is also interested in training and has set up an exchange program 
with Howard. Two staff members teach various aspects of television on the 
campus. In return, a TV production class meets spends four hours each week 

- 6 - 

in ,the WETA studios practicing solving a variety of production problems. 

WETA doesn't talk much. Don't be fooled. This is a station that is: 
moving with the times and is a part of what's happening. 

* * * * 


WGBH, Boston, a real leader in this work,' pushing out toward 
an incredible number of different horizons. 

KCET, Los Angeles, coming on strong with a beautifully con¬ 
ceived and produced film about the "Watts Tower Theater Workshop. " 

WNDT, New York, now in the countdown on SOUL! , a late night 
entry to premiere in September with an emphasis on talk and 
entertainment aimed at the N. Y. area's two million Blacks. 

WCNY, Syracuse, taking a remote unit into the inner city to 
find information and entertainment that hits the Black community. 

WYES, New Orleans, busy with ARENA, a talk show that talks sense, 
plus half a dozen other Disadvantaged-oriented projects. 

* * * * 

It's a two way street according to Dr. Robert L. Hilliard, addressing 
the April Seventh Annual College Conference of the International Radio and 
Television Society: ■ ; - n 

"We. . . all of us. . . need the education that television and radio 
can provide. Just as we want the people inside the ghetto to 
learn, those of us outside of it have also got to be ready to learn. 

For the many of us who have been emotionally raised in a world 
of platitudinous beliefs and verbal rationalizations it isn't going 
to be easy. But in realistic terms, for those who can't see it 
from any other point of view, I suspect that it beats having to 
choose between hiding out forever in the crab grass or risking 
a hole in the head to visit the art museum in the center of the 
city. " 

: • (fin • 

August 7, 1968 

Dr. Robert Hilliard 

Chief, Educational Broadcasting Branch 
Federal Communications Commission 
1919 M Street, N. W. 

Washington, D. C. 20554 

Dear Bobs 

I*ve just today got around to reading the copy of your 
address to the Seventh Annual College Conference of the 
International Radio and Television Society. It is ex¬ 
cellent, in fact it is one of the best, one of the most 
insightful analyses I have read anywhere of the nature of 
the ghetto problem, the ghetto child, and the role that 
communications might play in rehabilitation and the devel¬ 
opment of a two-way communication between these disconnected 
parts of our society. 

I wish your talk had been given at one of our regional 
meetings or the national convention - not only because our 
people need to hear this, but because * think it was prob¬ 
ably largely wasted on the audience you had for this occa¬ 
sion. Our people have the potential to do something and 
I'm glad to say - as you can see from the attached memoranda - 
that they are finally beginning to move. 

We will spend a good deal of time on the ghetto-communications 
topic at our national convention and, though I am not organiz¬ 
ing this section and am not sure what plans have been made so 
far (our convention coordinator is in Europe at the moment), 

I certainly hope we can arrange to have you participate in 
some way in this important discussion. 

Cordially yours. 

Enc. 7 

William G. Harley 

August 2, 1968 

Mias Jan* Root 

WBAA, Purdue University 

Lafayette, Indiana 

Dear Mias Root: 

Thank you for your letter of July 30th expressing interest in the 
Urban Broadcasting Workshop. I am enclosing the brochure provided by 
the host institution. The American University. Should you need more 
detailed information, may I suggest you contact the following individual 
who, more than anyone else, has been responsible for the real success 
of the Workshop: Dr. Roger Penn, Associate Professor, The Urban Broad¬ 
casting Workshop, Communication Building, The American University, 
Washington, D. C. 20016 

It is interesting to note that you too are weary of stating problems 
and are ready to seek solutions in regard to programming for the Disadvan¬ 
taged. Stations all over America are reporting the same attitude and are 
doing something concrete about it. 

Incidentally, my use of the term " Die advantaged” is not reserved for 
blacks. The TV and Radio program reports that go out of my office each week 
tell of programs for, by and about disadvantaged Caucasians, Mexican- 
Americans, American Indians as well as Negroes. We are interested in 
‘•the people left behind” and that is not the exclusive compond of Negroes. 

I would be very interested to know what WBAA is doing in this area of 
programming. Would you be kind enough to drop me a note to this effect? 




Kenneth R. Clark 
Project Director 

70 Fifth Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 10011 
OB 5-2536, OB 5-2700 



August 2, 1968 

Mr. Kenneth R. Clark 
Project Director 

13^6 Connecticut Avenue, N, W. 

Washington, D. C. 20036 

Dear Mr. Clark: 

Mr. Horton is very grateful to you for seeing that 
Ee”receives reports pertinent to the Media Project 

here. "Voice of the Ghetto 1 " and "Fifth Report on ~ 

Programming for the Disadvantaged" arrived this 

morning and he is looking forward to studying them. 

Thank you for your continuing help. 

Very truly yours. 

Susan S. Horton 
Secretary to Mr. Horton 


Copy to Mr. Chalmers H. Marquis 

August 2, 1968 

Mr. Martin Gal 
Producer, Assignment Ten 

Michigan State University 
East Lansing, Michigan 

Dear Marty: 

Sorry I couldn't get back to you by phone as promised. But let 
me react on paper, then if you want to call we can take it from there. 

These are only one man's reactions; I hope they are useful. 

First of all, the idea. It is a good one.. .if the scripts are well 
written and produced. Who is writing? Will the writer be paid? You 
didn't suggest that he would be when we talked early this week. But a 
good writer who can research the problem, understand, and tell the story 
in narration and dialogue forms with humor and perception. . .that takes 
talent that usually doesn't come cheap. 

Is your budget of $2, 000 per show too high? (Unless you include 
the services of a professional writer.) I appreciate all the values of hiring 
your acting company from the ghetto... but these are not pro performers; 
do they deserve pro salaries... at least that's how the foundations will view 
it. You're not even going after local amateurs with some experience. *, If 
I understand the idea, you want to have the people themselves tell it like it 
is, only in role playing form. Great idea if you can bring it off, but still 
these people are not trained actors; there is little justification for paying 
them as such. 

On the presentation itself, I find it rambles. I get lost between what 
materials go into the TV production and what materials are reserved for the 
coffee discussions which follow. Again, the foundation intellect is geared 
for brief, concise presentations which tell their story simply, clearly. Go 
back to a basic outline and stick to it. Put things in easily identified cat¬ 
egories; it makes reading a helluva lot more enjoyable. 

Martin Gal 


August 2, 1968 

How about a sample script? Semi-scripted.... o. k. But don't 
potential backers need something more concrete to put their money on? 
(I'm sure you know more about this than I do, but that's the way it seems 
to me). 

And^here is the budget breakdown. I think if I was Joe Founfiation, 

I'd be willing to give my attention to this project once... and I'd be irritated 
if it didn't tell me quite clearly what it would cost me. 

Watch your wording and remember your readers. On* A-3 you 
suggest the shows can be previewed by social agencies who will then be 
better equipped to "handle their clients on a new basis. " Something tells 
me the social agency types won't look at it that way at all. If anything, I'd 
suspect they'd be anti-series to begin with.. .but even more so if you tell 
them you're going to equip them to do their jobs better. 

Do you really have to pay a social scientist to analyze the series? 

In this case would it be inappropriate to get the MSU Department of Sociology 
(or some more appropriate department) to co-sponsor the series and provide 
this kind of expertese free of charge? (They might even welcome such an 
arrangement... and end up using the series as a teaching tool for their own 

If I read you correctly, you would plan on five shows each week. 

An incredible undertaking if done with amateurs. What is the value of trying 
for so much all at once? I think you are building in an insurrmountable 
problem for yourself, the station and the participants. 

What makes you so sure members of the "other community" will likely 
come forth to help the cause after viewing the series? I'm sorry, but what's 
in it for them? Assuming they watch the shows (and that is a big if) are you 
that confident of their reaction that you'd include your prognostication in a 
proposal such as this? 

Do I understand you correctly that part of the shows expenses will 
cover the coffee hours in various neighborhoods. Perhaps I misread. But 
if that is your intention, is it likely any foundation or sponsor would accept 
that? I think paying for the series and paying for the coffee are two very 
different things and should be handled separately. Getting free cups and 
coffee shouldn't be difficult... but don't ask the series backer to do it.. . 
unless he happens to be a coffee maker. 

I suggest you keep yourself off the Advisory Panel. 

a. You are probably not an expert in the field of social welfare. 

Martin Gal 


August 2, 1968 

b. WMSB will offer its own expertise (through you) and 
facilities. .. and promotion. .. and that's enough, isn't 
it? Also, by staying out of the Advisory Group, you 
keep the station off the hook in terms of a certain kind 
of criticism. 

This doesn't mean you aren't involved. You can^he, 
really, in all phases. But why be obvious where it 
cannot help and might even be damaging. 

Not even knowing the members of the Advisory Group, I find I am 
not very impressed. I don't know who else should be there. .. but the group 
suggests a tight knit collection of activists who have been heard from many 
times before and who, without less obvious members in their group, could 
antagonize by their very non-objective personal persuasion. 

On approaching possible local sponsors for a "public service grant", 

I think the idea should be gotten across that they are helping fellow citizens 
to help themselves.. . to get off the welfare roles,.. and ultimately to campaign 
themselves for themselves. 

Of course, these are all small, nit-picking observations. You asked 
for comments and there they are. The important thing, however is that the 
idea itself is so strong. Watch the program reports.,. others are getting into 
the welfared recipient angle too. No one is handling it like WMSB, though. I 
think your approach is iresh, obviously dedicated, and calculated to do 
tremendous good. How great it must be for the ADC women to be treated like 
human beings. Your attitude alone has to be making a contribution. I hope 
your series goes. I think you've plugged into something important. 

There are no funds available through NAEB sources at this time. What 
many stations have already done is get their proposals ready and submitted 
against the day when Congress will authorize expenditures for the Corporation 
for Public Broadcasting. You might want to consider that approach for this or 
future ideas. If interested, the following address could be useful; Mr. Frank 
Pace, President, International Executive Service Corporation, 545 Madison 
Avenue, New York, New York. 

Frank Pace is the Chairman of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting 
and will be involved in the allocation of program funds when they finally become 
available. His office could give you any information you need along these lines. 

Incidentally, I hope you can get to the convention this year as some 
sessions will be devoted to how stations can apply for funding; Should be useful. 

Martin Gal 


August 2, 1968 

Marty, I have the feeling I've rambled, but I think there is some 
logic to the reactions. Best of luck with the series; You are doing good 
things out there. Keep it up. 



Kenneth R. Clark 
Project Director 

National Educational Radio 

1346 Connecticut Avenue N.W. Washington D.C. 20036 Telephone 667-6000 



August 1, 1968 

Second Report, Radio Programs for the Disadvantaged 
Ken Clark, Project Director 

That's what this second report is mainly about. 

WBUR, WAMU, and WKAR decidedly on the train. 

Boston University’s WBUR has plugged into an idea that 
dominates the station's activities seven days a week. The project: 
THE DRUM, a nightly program across the board from 8:00 - 9:30 PM. 

Here is a little history. Recognizing that many good intentions 
of many stations have strayed toward failure because of lack of es¬ 
sential contacts in the black community, WBUR restructured its 
own traditional thought. Again and again, residents of Roxbury, 
the "inner city" of Boston have heard talk, talk, talk about them¬ 
selves and about what turned out to be imaginary ideas for improve¬ 
ment of their situation. 

WBUR was determined to go beyond the-talk stage. The station 
connected with William Gibson, Negro attorney on the Law Faculty of 
Boston University who agreed to try to help make meaningful con¬ 
tacts in Roxbury. A steering committee of black leaders was formed. 

What was the gap WBUR was trying to filll 1 Local commercial 
station WILD, primarily oriented to black listeners signs off in 
the early evening. WBUR was concerned that radio communication for 
Roxbury community had to have a continuous channel of instantaneous 
communications, "not only for black people to communicate with each 
other, but also with the white establishment." 

WBUR offered station time, facilities and its own expertise 
to get something going. The steering committee came back with a 
program concept that included a telephone talk segment (with guest 
experts in the studio), broadcasts and reviews of concerts and other 
community cultural events; interviews, live and taped with com¬ 
munity leaders; record shows, and information on job and housing 

Two of WILD's black D.J.'s, Jimmy Byrd and Chuck Core, along 
with Negro newsman Bill Slater of Group W's WBZ were signed on for 
P.. a y to serve as anchor men of the new series. (Please note: these 

page two 

Radio Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 1, 1968 

gentlemen work for WBUR after their regular jobs are finished 
each day-. Note further that WBUR insists on paying for these 
services««.it isn't much, but the station doesn't subscribe to 
the old idea of conning talent into free labor "for the good of 
the cause"* * * a notion that has too long degraded both educational 
radio and television)-, 

WILD promotes THE DRUM frequently and with real impact for. 
its own listeners, who then change frequency on their home receivers 
uoo reports indicate that the switch-over is effortless and not 
the least bit confusing. (Does this give any of the rest of you 
ideas? It should.,) 

The series has been described as "a station within a station*" 
And that concept suggests an out for those of you who are trying 
to set up a ghetto satellite but can't find funds. Maybe the 
answer is too easy, perhaps it doesn't solve the complete problem* 
But it is a start, and if THE DRUM is any sort of criterion, it's 
a pretty good start* 

I asked Will Lewis, Station Manager, and Russ Raycroft, back- 
stage guiding hand for the series, if they were moving toward a 
wholly black production unit* The Steering Committee is all 
black; the anchor men are black; two communications trainees as¬ 
signed to the series are black* The answer is "NO." The com¬ 
mittee itself prefers an integrated team, although the emphasis 
in assigning producers, reporters and writers will be black* 

What about feedback? Does the Roxbury community care? Does 
it bother to listen? Affirmative* Letters, telephone calls, com¬ 
ments from the street indicate THE DRUM is hitting home because the 
black listeners recognize it as their own thing* One woman, a 
black resident of Roxbury and owner of a beauty shop says THE DRUM 
is mentioned again and again by her customers* They're listening 
all right* 

WBUR decided that to get at the roots of the ghetto commun¬ 
ications had to be firmly hooked up and maintained (intellectual, 
psychological and social communications lines)* Who should do 
that kind of work? WBUR thought it was elementary that the burden 
falls to the communicators themselves* 

THE DRUM is only a small part of WBUR*s swinging move into 
the urban mainstream* You'll hear more* 

CONTACT: Will Lewis, General Manager 

page three 

Radio Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 1, 1968 

WAMU, Washington Do C.: Once in awhile a series comes along 
that soars; by content, format, and production such a series is set 
aparto THE VOICES OF POVERTY, produced each week evening by WAMU, 
and in continuous production since May of this year is that kind 
of show.. 

The producers and reporters have gone to the inner city of 
Washington, Do Co to talk with poor Americans who live every day 
with problems of low income, inadequate housing, unemployment and 
frustrationo They also talked to community leaders who are trying 
to do something about those problems« 

What the series does best is allow a channel of open expres¬ 
sion for ghetto residents. One of the most awful things about 
being poor is the helpless feeling that you've been left behind by 
society... discarded... shut one wants to hear your voice. 

And that’s low. When your urgent thoughts are considered so ir¬ 
relevant by everyone else. THE VOICES OF POVERTY roars through 
the night, attacking man's inhumanity to man with the broadcaster’s 
best tool: honesty. 

Interviews with and addresses by Carl Stokes, Mayor of Cleve¬ 
land; Reies Tijerina, spokesman for Mexican Americans; Rev. Ralph 
Abernathy; Hosea Williams and Sterling Tucker underscore the poor 
peoples' plight with predictable articulateness. It is good stuff. 

But then listen to the "nobodies" talk about growing up in 
D. Co, working there, being on welfare there; trying to live like 
a man there when the system has historically said that was impos¬ 
sible for a black man. 

THE VOICES OF POVERTY tells a straight story as viewed by 
its four producers, three black, one white. The series is avail¬ 
able to other Eastern and HERN radio stations. 

WAMU, not so incidentally, has two black production assistants 
and two black engineers on its staff. Roger Penn, General Manager 
of the station believes in radio broadcasters getting into this 
thing because they have the resources to make a rich and informed 
contribution...if only they will...and because they aren't doing 
their job if access to the public air waves is denied that public 
which is poor. 

Beyond the station's policy of programming for the Disadvantaged, 
consider the Urban Broadcasting Workshop. This is a joint university- 
industry project sparked and supported by WAMU of the American 
University, and also supported by WGMS-AM-FM, RKO General Inc.; 
WRC-AM-FM-TV, National Broadcasting Co.; WTOP-AM-FM-TV, Post-News- 
week Stations; WTTG-TV, Metromedia Inc.; and WWDC-AM-FM, AVCO 
Broadcasting Corp. 

page four 

Radio Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 1, 1968 

This year, the month long program provides instruction five 
days each week for twenty students, most of them blacko These kids 
were carefully screened first by their high schools and then by 
the Workshop administrators. They are all high school students 
who have just finished their Junior year. Those who show real 
promise in communications skills, and who in turn show a sincere 
interest in our industry, are encouraged and followed up through 
their Senior Year. Summer jobs are found when possible. Guidance 
and counselling personnel help chart a university or technical 
training program and look for scholarships. And when it finally 
comes to job hiring.--there will be help enough. 

The Broadcasting Workshop is a new idea in that it was con¬ 
ceived as a way of finding bright kids from black neighborhoods 
who can work their own way toward careers in broadcasting with 
someone from the "Establishment.who is their 
corner. Little things count. Last year, it was discovered several 
of the students weren't eating lunch. Why? They didn't have the 
money. Any money. At least none they dared spend on such a 
luxury as mid-day meal. The Workshop thereafter bought lunches. 
Transportation is another stickler. No funds this year, but it is 
being looked into because a couple of drop-out experiences proved 
that some good people couldn't make it because of bus fare. In¬ 
centives to learn. The Workshop approach is one of deep concern, 
for the individual student, his education, his future employment. 

If bus fares and lunches are part of the bag...then that's what's 
happening at WAMU. 

WAMU project. It provides a temporary, inexpensive, rapid means 
of communication between school authorities in urban Washington. 

During the riots last April, the Superintendent of Schools 
for the District found that in some cases he had to wait several 
hours to make telephone contact with certain schools. How to solve 
the problem? A permanent, open line was installed between WAMU-FM 
and the Superintendent's office. All schools already had radio 
receivers which were reassigned to an administrative office for 
purposes of the system. 

WAMU is ready to interrupt its own schedule at any time in 
order to activate an emergency announcement by the Superintendant. 
Detailed explanations of how the system works, plus regular, periodic 
testing, makes the plan a viable and valuable system of communications. 

Any of you managers or program personnel who are sitting around 
idly wondering how on earth your station can relate to the Disad¬ 
vantaged, might consider WAMU’s self-definition of "public service." 

CONTACT: Roger Penn, General Manager 

page five 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 1, 1968 

WKAR-AM-FM, East Lansing: The stations discovered an inter¬ 
esting thing a couple of months ago* Conventional news outlets 
in Lansing-East Lansing and surrounding areas were not covering 
the efforts of the Michigan poor to campaign locally and nationally 
to raise money for legislative petitions or to facilitate commun¬ 
ication between the poor of the community and the remainder of the 

That seemed serious enough. But then they learned that 
neither newspapers nor the broadcast stations in the mid—Michigan 
area covered any news or efforts of the Disadvantaged. Crazy; 

Of Course, but there it was« Stifled voices of the weak and 
helpless...its an old story. To the poor who want to be heard 
it doesn't much matter whether it is malicious stifling, apathetic 
stifling or even benevolent stifling. At least WKAR thought so* 

Then they set out to do something about it. 

Contacts were made with spokesmen for the Disadvantaged to 
determine just which way programming ought to go to do the most 
goodc Poor housing, unemployment, incentive, health, welfare... 
these were all useful topics to go after. 

WKAR decided on the Mexican-American community as the prime 
listening targeto One-half hour per week is devoted to a variety 
of discussions, interviews, and talks with spokesmen for the poor 
and the poor themselves. Among other subjects treated by the series 
so far are (1) Health, including frank talks about VD and the 
infant mortality rate; (2) the Welfare Department's decision to 
move out of the poverty pocket to the edge of Lansing into a new 
and beautiful complex of government buildings. . . neglecting the fact 
that those on the Welfare rolls don’t have time or money to take 
the two hour bus trip each week; (3) a two-part examination of 
three labor camps in the area with the Mexican-American migrants 
telling their own story. 

The series, produced by Steve Meuche, is low key; it is not 
intended to be sensational. But the audience is coming alive. As 
one man recently said, "For the first time we have the opportunity 
to say something with the knowledge that we’ll be heard!" No big 
deal for those of us who have had no trouble communicating. But 
for those listeners of WKAR who have never had a "voice" the series 
is opening up a world. 

In the mill is a proposal, now under foundation consideration, 
to do a year long series designed for and produced by the Spanish¬ 
speaking Americans in the WKAR listening area. 

WKAR has found a common meeting ground with the Spanish¬ 
speaking in the Cristo Rey Community Center, a program of the 

page six 

Programs for the Disadvantaged 
August 1, 1968 

Lansing Diocese of the Roman Catholic Church which provides aid 
to the newly arrived migrant and other poor- The Center has a 
story worth listening to, much of it brand new in the fields of 
housing services, a credit union, and dental and baby clinics• 

If funded appropriately, WKAR expects to hire announcers, 
writers and other talent from the Mexican-American community itself 
o 0 „the series will be exclusively in Spanish- One full time paid 
member of that community will be taken on the WKAR staff as a 
production assistant trainee and will work closely with the series. 

The project may have to be curtailed to some degree should 
external funding fail to materialize- But WKAR staff members are 
determined to get the series on the air one way or the other - 
It's their community•--they share the problem.,.they feel a respons¬ 
ibility to do something about it- 

No, the black man is not being ignored- About a third of 
the current series is devoted to the black issues- Black spokes¬ 
men are encouraged to think of WKAR as an outlet- And two black 
students at Michigan State are planning productions on the station 
this Fall- If the emphasis seems to be more on the Mexican-American 
story at the moment, it’s a reflection of the time and temper of 
the Lansing area- WKAR is on top of what is urgent 

CONTACT: Richard Estell, Manager 

* * * * 

NEXT WEEK: WPLN, Nashville: In the movement since 1962, station 

officials say their fully integrated 
staff is a real advantage in pro¬ 
gramming for the Disadvantaged - 

WAUP, Akron: Planning a documentary on the 

" white ghetto" along with a variety 
of other urban core-oriented series- 

WHA, Madison: A state-wide operation that in¬ 

cluded TV, "The Inner Core" series 
wailed on such issues as housing 
prejudice, segregated education, 
soul music, police, Dick Gregory 
and rats as neighbors - 

KBPS, Portland: Discovering an "in" language used by 

disadvantaged kids in creative writing 
---understandable to other children, 
but hard for adults to follow- 

September 11, 1968 

Mr, Richard J. Meyer 

304 West 58th Street 
New York, New York 10019 

Dear Richie: 

Regarding your invitation, at present other matters 
dictate that I be here in Washington during that period. 
However, Ken Clark and I confer almost daily and you 
may be sure he represents my views. 

Of major concern to us is the kind of assistance this 
organization can provide over the long run to the stations. 
11*8 going to be enormously important for your people to 
study carefully the services that have been provided 
essentially by Ken Clark in the last several months with 
a view to recommending whether or not we should seek 
funding to continue them. Needless to say, I am very 
much encouraged, but I'd like the depth reports of your 
committee. These would be useful in seeking funds 
necessary to continue. 

I hope you have an excellent meeting, as l am sure 
you will. 

Best regards. 

Chalmers H. Marquis 


cc: Mr. Kenneth Clark